Cameroon

Situation Report

Highlights

  • North-West and South West situation report (1-28 February 2021 )
  • 377 Gender Based Violence (GBV) incidents were reported in the two regions.
  • 16,383 infants and pregnant women received routine vaccines they had previously missed.
  • 245,300 people in the North-West and South-West (NWSW) regions benefited from food assistance as well as agriculture and livelihood activities.
  • COVID-19 is negatively impacting education with an increase of positive cases among teachers and students.
Source: OCHA
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report

Key Figures

3M
Affected people in NWSW
1.4M
Targeted for assistance in NWSW
705.8K
IDPs within or displaced from NWSW
360.5K
Returnees (former IDP) in NWSW
63.2K
Cameroonian refugees in Nigeria

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Situation Report

Funding

$390.9M
Required
$195.3M
Received
50%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Carla Martinez

Head of Office

Ilham Moussa

Head of Sub-Office North-West and South-West regions

Marie Bibiane Mouangue

Public information Officer

Cameroon

Situation Report
Visual

Map of IDP, from the North-West and South-West Regions of Cameroon

Map of IDPs and returnees from the North-West and South-West regions of Cameroon

Source: OCHA, IOM, CHOI, Partners

The boundaries and names shown, and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

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Cameroon

Situation Report
Background

Situation Overview

The situation in the NWSW regions remained dire in February with continued violence and targeted attacks. The population remained caught up between parties to the ongoing crisis. Cases of harassment of the local population by parties to the conflict were reported in many communities. Some people were targeted for alleged association with one side or the other, and others caught by stray bullets during crossfire.

Hostilities were reported in Nwa subdivision in the North-West (NW) region. Between 22 and 26 February, an estimated 4,200 individuals were displaced from Tong, Sih, Bom, Nyack, Nfeh, Kwack, and Yang villages in Nwa subdivision due to attacks from Fulani vigilante groups. These attacks led to the death of at least eight people. There have also been reports of fighting between non-State armed groups (NSAGs) and the Fulani vigilante groups within these communities.

Attacks against traditional leaders resurfaced in February. On 13 February, four traditional rulers, the chiefs of Ndung Ngoh, Nchanalleh, Mbrah, and Aleshesuoh villages in the Lebialem division in the South-West region (SW) were abducted from their homes and taken to the market square of Essoh Attah village in Lebialem division where they were shot dead. On 14 February, the traditional ruler of Kom village in the Boyo division in the North-West region (NW) was abducted from his palace by NSAGs and taken to their camp. He was released two hours later, as the local population gathered at the NSAG camp to demand his release. Following this incident, cases of harassment and movement restrictions were reported on the road from Fundong to Njinikom, with NSAGs asking for money from passers-by.

Humanitarian actors continued to operate under numerous constraints. On 4 February, a nurse working with an international NGO was injured by gunshots as their ambulance was caught in a crossfire during a NSAG attack in Mbalangi village in the Mbonge subdivision in the SW. On 25 February, a food distribution activity was interrupted by a NSAGs attack in a locality in the Muyuka subdivision in the SW. On 27 February, a UN staff onboard a public transport bus traveling from Bamenda to Kumba was removed from the bus alongside other passengers, assaulted and taken to the bush by unidentified gunmen suspected to be NSAG fighters. In Fundong, Boyo division in the NW, some partners have been forced to stop distribution activities due to access constraints.

The use of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) remains prevalent, with at least ten incidents reported of IEDs detonated or dismantled during February. Humanitarian agencies are not targeted by IEDs but remain at risk of becoming collateral damage or being at the wrong time/ wrong place.

Attacks against school staff continued in February. On 17 February, two teachers at the Government’s secondary school of Abangoh quarter, in the Bamenda 2 subdivision in the NW, were allegedly abducted on campus by suspected NSAG fighters. No further information was available about their whereabouts.

Violence has resulted in multiple population displacement across the NWSW regions with over 10,741 people forced to flee their homes to seek shelter and safety in nearby bushes, villages and towns in February alone. The Donga-Mantung, Bui, Boyo and Mezam divisions in the NW, and the Lebialem and Manyu divisions in the SW, are the most affected.

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Situation Report
Trends
education
UNESCO provides access to relevant inclusive and quality education to out-of school children, through distance learning platforms (formal and non-formal education system) in the South-West region. Photo: UNESCO/Mirela Kuljanin

Humanitarian Response: Education

The security situation within the schools was relatively calm compared to the previous months. The increase in COVID-19 cases especially in the NW region is affecting students and teachers, with some being infected. In compliance to Government and World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, systematic screening for COVID-19 began in schools in February. So far, 2.45 per cent of teachers have been tested and 11.1 per cent among them were tested positive. 4,814 children were tested and 229 cases, representing 4.8 per cent, tested positive. Approximately 30 per cent of functional schools in the NW have recorded positive COVID-19 cases. Unfortunately, due to the lack of test kits, and insufficient prevention equipment, the testing and prevention exercise might soon be halted.

Education Cluster partners reached 41,650 students including 22,713 girls and 18,937 boys, with response interventions adapted to the COVId-19 context such as, radio education, distance learning, distribution of recreational kits, psychosocial support, and COVID-19 sensitization.

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Situation Report
Trends
Food assistance
IDP beneficiary of food distribution in South-West region. Credit: OCHA Giles Clarke

Humanitarian Response: Food Security

Food Security Cluster partners provided food, agriculture and livelihood assistance to 245,300 people, equivalent to 32 per cent of the beneficiaries. Livelihood and household coping mechanisms are overly stretched, and the affected population is becoming increasingly dependent on monthly food assistance.

Many national NGOs are not operational, as funding remains a major challenge. The lack of funding continued to have a negative effect on the overall food security response, with some families in need not receiving assistance.

The Cluster recently concluded its Coordination Performance Monitoring (CCPM) exercise with 66 per cent of the respondents feeling satisfied with the overall Cluster performance. Additionally, as part of the cluster performance review process, the Cluster plans to organize a validation workshop with partners to further discuss the responses and recommendations for an effective follow up of partners’ needs.

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Situation Report
Trends
Health
MSF Community health volunteer providing free consultation to IDPs in South West region

Humanitarian Response: Health

The NWSW regions are experiencing a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, reported to be more severe than the first wave in June-July 2020, in terms of number of cases detected per epidemiological week and number of deaths. The case fatality rate in the NW is 4.1 per cent, almost three times the national figure. This can be partially explained by the increased testing of dead bodies in the region. From 22 to 28 February, nine over 11 deaths were recorded in health facilities and two in the community. WHO is supporting mass testing campaigns in the NWSW to increase the testing rates from below 100 in 10,000 people to 300 in 10,000 people by the end of April 2021.

The Health Cluster coordination meeting took place in Bamenda in February. During this meeting, partners agreed on the need to update the public health situational analysis (PHSA) and the Health Resources and Available Services Monitoring System (HeRAMS) in the two regions.

The Cluster has a limited and decreasing number of operational partners because of limited funding. However, available partners continued to deliver timely and life-saving services to affected communities. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) supported the Regional Delegation of Public Health (RDPH) of the SW to carry out the third and last round of three-days catch-up vaccination for children and pregnant women in the region. A total of 15,307 infants and 1,076 pregnant women who had missed vaccine doses were vaccinated. UNICEF also supported the RDPH SW to train 45 staff from 18 health facilities on infection prevention and control (IPC) in the context of COVID-19. WHO provided 264 phones and communication credit in the NWSW to support the regional and district rapid response teams (RRT) trained in December 2020 to effectively respond to COVID-19.

The rapid assessments carried out during joint field missions in February highlighted healthcare as a pressing need in all visited communities. Access to timely and equitable healthcare remains a major challenge to affected populations in the NWSW.

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Situation Report
Trends
Nutrition
A child with severe acute malnutrition admitted for treatment at the limbe regional hospital supported by UNICEF Credit: UNICEF/Salomon Beguel

Humanitarian Response: Nutrition

Nutrition partners screened 19,713 children under five, including 9,263 boys and 10,450 girls for acute malnutrition. 44 children, equivalent to 0.2 per cent, were identified with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and were therefore referred for appropriate treatment. 257 children, equivalent to 1.3 per cent, were identified with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Different approaches are being applied to ensure stronger linkages between screening and referrals for SAM treatment. 17,388 caregivers were sensitized on infant and young child feeding practices integrating COVID-19 specific messages.

Nutrition partners started a blanket supplementary feeding programme (BSFP) in food insecure areas. 11,387 children aged between six and 23 months and 7,381 pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were supported under the preventive programme for undernutrition. The number of beneficiaries reached is high compared to those reached in January, as additional partners implemented a package of activities including screening, referrals and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during February. Additional nutrition commodities for the management of SAM were prepositioned with the Delegations of Public Health in Buea for the SW and Bamenda for the NW.

Lockdowns resulted in temporally halting partners’ operations especially distribution and follow-up activities with children.

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Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Protection

The protection environment in the NWSW remained volatile. Regular confrontations between State Security Forces and NSAGs, restrictions of movement and lockdowns, an increase in the use of IEDs by NSAGs, targeted attacks and killings, threats against people as well as raids and indiscriminate arrests continue to hinder the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

Protection partners carried out assessments and focus group discussions (FGDs) in Njinikom, Wombong, Kikfuini, Ngwah, Aduk, Fungeh, Djichami, Abuh, Baicham, Mbingo 2, Mission Quarter, Mentang, and Tinifiombi villages in Boyo division in the NW. They recorded 47 flash alerts. In January, protection partners collected 564 incident reports including reports of physical assault and threats, the destruction of habitat, threat to life and personal security of persons, murder, SGBV cases, cases of eviction, and cases of arbitrary arrest and detention. All SGBV cases were referred to relevant GBV Area of Responsibility (AoR) partners.

131 persons received psychosocial support, 1,708 persons received legal and cash assistance, 68 persons were sensitized on the rights and responsibilities of IDPs, while 31 community members, humanitarian actors and State authorities received protection training. Protection partners conducted monitoring activities for more than 7,477 persons and assisted 568 IDPs to obtain national identity cards and civil status documents.

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Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Child Protection Area of Responsibility (AoR)

The situation of children and adolescents in the NWSW regions remains dire. Cases of child rights violations continued to be reported by Child Protection (CP) actors in the field, mainly sexual violence, and attacks on schools. Several incidents of alleged child trafficking were reported by Child Protection actors, such as the case of 26 children who were allegedly trafficked by two adult traffickers from Ekondo-Titi in Ndian division in the SW to Limbe in Fako division in the SW. They were intercepted by Government agents and taken to the Limbe Gendarmerie. CP AoR and its members followed up on the case and coordinated with relevant authorities to find a solution in the best interest of affected children. Reports from the field indicate that the main driver for child trafficking is the worsening humanitarian situation in the NWSW regions.

CP AoR partners reached more than 17,100 children and caregivers with different activities and interventions. More than 8,000 children and caregivers were reached with psychosocial support services and positive parenting skills in child-friendly and other safe spaces. As for child protection case management services, CP AoR members reached 400 children throughout the SW and NW regions. 26 children, including 15 girls and 11 boys, were reunited with their families and/or placed in alternative care arrangements. More than 5,200 individuals were sensitized on child protection and GBV issues, as well as COVID-19 and its preventive measures.

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Trends

Humanitarian Response: GBV Area of Responsibility

377 GBV cases were reported to relevant service providers. 100 per cent of survivors received assistance in accordance with the Do No Harm principle through secured and coordinated referrals. The number of reported cases represents those collected by GBV partners during activity implementation and are not a representation of all GBV incidents that took place in the two regions. The reported figures cannot therefore be used to generate or track GBV prevalence data.

Survivors of GBV incidents are mostly women, representing 92 per cent of the cases, with one per cent people with disabilities. 12 per cent of survivors are children. 45 per cent of survivors received psychosocial support, 40 per cent received health related support, and 13 per cent received livelihood services. There is a critical need to scale up lifesaving GBV services and advocate for access to affected communities in hard-to-reach areas.

GBV partners reached 15,933 people with prevention and response interventions, including GBV awareness raising and information on available services, dignity kits distribution, women and girls safe space activities, psychosocial support and psychological first aid, youth and adolescent support programmes, vocational training or women, capacity building for community members and frontline workers on GBV concepts, engagement of men and boys to raise awareness on GBV, and GBV risk mitigation.

During a three-days long training on the structuring and governance of Cameroonian Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), organized by the Cameroon humanitarian organization initiative (CHOI), GBV AoR partners facilitated a module on GBV core concepts. Also, at a training on multisectoral needs assessment (MSNA), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) distributed 300 copies of the GBV referral pathway to participants in Buea and Bamenda.

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Situation Report
Trends

Humanitarian Response: Shelter/NFI

Shelter/NFI Cluster partners reached 8,388 individuals with shelter and NFI kits, including 4,951 in the NW and 3,437 in the SW.

In the NW region, Plan International distributed 229 emergency shelter kits in Tiben village in Batibo subdivision. Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) distributed 500 packs comprising emergency shelter items, household and kitchen items, and hygiene items in Tingoh, Mbakong, and lower Bafut Villages in Bafut subdivision, reaching 3,315 individuals. They also distributed 500 packs containing shelter kits, household items and kitchen items in Kembong, Egbekaw, Njeke, and Besongabang villages in the Mamfe central and Eyumojock subdivisions in the SW. Strategic Humanitarian Services’ (SHUMAS) NGO provided 41 students with accommodation subsidies.

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Trends

Humanitarian Response: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

WASH partners provided various services and COVID-19 prevention interventions to 50,238 individuals in the NWSW regions. Additionally, WASH partners trained health workers, hygiene promoters, volunteers, and water user committees on the establishment of garbage disposal pits.

February recorded delays in project implementation in the SW due to lockdowns related to the African Nations Championship (CHAN 2021) that took place between 16 January and 6 February with some teams based in Buea and playing in Limbe in the South-West (SW) region. However, activities regained steam immediately after the end of the tournament. The security situation remained tense with displacements recorded in both regions. WASH services were identified as a major need during assessments in communities with these new displacements. Unfortunately, resources were not sufficient to respond to these emergencies. Most of the donor-funded projects already have specific target groups. Hence, mobilizing resources quickly for newly displaced population becomes increasingly difficult.

The number of partners sharing 5Ws reports increased from four in January to 14 in February. This improvement can be attributed to a session on 5Ws reporting, facilitated by a monitoring and evaluation specialist from UNICEF.

The Cluster and its strategic advisory group (SAG) meetings were held on 19 and 26 February in the NW and SW regions respectively. The SAG advised the Cluster Coordinator to carry out partners capacity assessments and verify their profile as part of the process to develop an Emergency Preparedness Plan.

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Situation Report
Coordination

Humanitarian Coordination

OCHA continued to ensure the coordination of the response in the NWSW regions and continued to advocate for humanitarian access and for effective and principled humanitarian action through regular meetings with relevant stakeholders. OCHA provided support to secure access for three humanitarian monitoring and assessment missions of United Nations agencies in the NWSW. This included missions to Bafut and Wum subdivision in the NW, and to Kumba and Mamfe in the SW.

OCHA briefed members of several humanitarian clusters on the compact to end demands for illegal payments from humanitarian organizations. This compact aims at ending the demands for financial or in-kind payments for access and to humanitarian organizations and encourages humanitarian partners to report such requests for illegal payments to OCHA, to support advocacy with those who are trying to impose this practice. From 3 to 5 February, the Cameroon humanitarian organization initiative (CHOI), a platform of national NGOs, organized a training to support the governance of CSOs. The training was sponsored by the Canadian Government. It aims at building the capacities of 15 local CSOs in the NWSW regions on humanitarian principles, gender, protection, disability mainstreaming, as well as accounting, human resource management, fraud, and corruption.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Attack rate per 10,000 people
Attack rate per 10,000 people Source: Cameroon COVID-19 Situation report n.72 (from 18 to 24 March 2021)

COVID-19 Situation report - It covers the period from 1 February to 31 March 2021.

HIGHLIGHTS  

  • The cumulative COVID-19 cases in Cameroon rose with more than 23,000 new cases. In January, Cameroon recorded 30,700 cases including 474 deaths in January 2020; while in March the country recorded 56,596 cases including 779 deaths. With a case fatality rate of 1.4 per cent, Cameroun remains among the 10 most-affected African countries with the highest number of COVID-19 cases.

  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) donated 25 ambulances and medical equipment to the Ministry of Public Health, intended to strengthen the health system and COVID-19 response.

  • Between 22 and 26 February 2021, the Ministry of Public Health (MoH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) organized an internal review of the COVID-19 response with partners. The main objective was to examine the national functional capacity of the COVID-19 response.

  • On 5 March, in his special communication following the significant increase of COVID-19 cases, the Prime Minister reiterated the rigorous observance of preventive measures. He also announced the arrival of more than a million vaccines to strengthen the COVID-19 prevention system in Cameroon.

  • 56,596 COVID-19 cases

  • 13,901 Active cases as per 24 March 2021

  • 1,691 healthcare workers infected

  • 1.2M Cumulation of samples tested for COVID-19 (TDR+PCR)

  • 1,4% Fatality rate

SITUATION OVERVIEW 

The COVID-19 epidemiolocal trend is worsening. The country recorded more than 23,000 new positive cases in March. As of 22 March, the UN and NGOs in Cameroon reported 323 cumulative cases and four deaths with 27 active cases among their staff. The Centre and Littoral regions remain the most affected and the situation in schools and universities remains worrying. 186 over 190 health districts are affected by the pandemic. The support provided by UNDP in the acquisition of 25 ambulances and medical equipment is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) “no regret” approach, which aims to strengthen the health system in a sustainable and comprehensive manner. This delivery is part of an agreement of $27.44 million signed between the Government of Cameroon and the Islamic Development Bank, to provide immediate assistance to COVID-19 affected communities through the provision of vital medical and non-medical equipment including scanners, respiratory equipment, ambulances, mobile radios for communication, etc. Following a review conducted by the Ministry of Public Health (MoH) with COVID-19 response actors at Kribi, in the South region, WHO advised to accelerate the COVID-19 vaccination process, redouble vigilance through surveillance, active case detection, enhanced case management and to ensure the compliance with barrier measures. WHO also recommended to enhance capacity building and continuity of care, and to better integrate the fight against COVID-19 into national disease surveillance and control systems. In the Coordination meeting of the Incident Management System (IMS), chaired by the Minister of Public Health, that was held in the Littoral region on 27 February, the Resident Representatives of WHO and UNICEF, and the Secretary General of the Ministry of Public Health recommended to reinforce the barrier measures in hospitals to avoid contamination of medical staff and front-liners who are assisting patients. In March, authorities announced the upcoming arrival of COVID-19 vaccines. The operation, which is part of the COVAX Global Access Facility, will be launched nationwide, and will initially allow the administration of one million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Health workers, people over 50 years old with comorbidities and existing conditions, vulnerable people and teachers, are priority targets. The vaccine will also be made available to special groups and the general public after the priority groups have been vaccinated. The MoH reiterated that the vaccine will be free and administrated on a voluntary basis.

Gaps & constraints

The MoH has conducted a lesson learned exercise on the COVID-19 response, which revealed the following gaps in the COVID-19 response:

  • Lack of sensitization on stress management and side effects related to COVID-19 vaccination.

  • Lack of medical ambulances and vehicles.

  • Lack of oxygen supply centers in the regions.

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Emergency Response

Case management and IPC

Needs:

  • With the increase in COVID-19 cases, health workers are more exposed. As of 24 March, 1,691 health personnel have been infected. Capacity building and provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) are necessary.

  • Strengthening of barrier measures within the UN agencies to protect personnel and their dependents severely affected by COVID-19.

  • School infirmaries are not sufficiently equipped to test all students. There is a need to organize massive testing in schools.

  • Need to monitor many asymptomatic cases living among community members who have no access to medical and psychological support.

Response

  • On 26 February, the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) presented a COVID-19 vaccine deployment plan and a budget to COVID-19 response partners.

  • While preparing for massive testing and vaccination, surveillance activities are continuing in schools and universities. The table below reflects the screening situation in schools and universities as of 17 March.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • The COVID-19 vaccine deployment plan does not clearly indicate the needed logistical resources, particularly the cold chain.

  • Limited logistical means to do tests in schools.

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Emergency Response

Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)

Needs:

  • Development of the COVID-19 vaccine communication plan including the crisis communication plan.

  • Putting the COVID-19 vaccination on the Government communication agenda.

Response:

  • The new RCCE strategy aims to direct actions towards mass gathering locations like schools, churches etc.

  • On 24 March, the Government has issued a statement indicating the closure of all churches that do not comply with COVID-19 barrier measures. Also, the Centre region Governor has issued a statement prohibiting festive gatherings until further notice.

  • UNICEF has expressed its readiness to support the Government in the development of communication materials on the COVID-19 vaccine.

  • Ongoing awareness raising campaigns on the importance of wearing masks and the respect to barrier measures in schools and health facilities across the national territory.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • There are no Infection, Prevention and Control (IPC) community programmes for people who share houses with COVID-19 patients.

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Emergency Response

Points of Entry (POE)

Needs:

  • As the number of COVID-19 cases increases, the Government needs to implement new mobility restriction measures. It is important to localize and evaluate prevention and response measures taken so far in PoE to face sanitary challenges.

  • Need to strengthen testing at border posts: the discovery of new variants of the COVID 19 virus suggests that entry points, when not properly monitored and controlled, are enabling the spread of the disease. 73 people tested positive for COVID-19 between 15 and 21 March.

Response:

  • Between December 2020 and February 2021, IOM collected data at 71 PoEs across nine regions through phone interviews with many key informants at health border points and border management posts. As a result, a mobility database mapping the location, status and different restrictions imposed at key PoEs was developed. The database will help national authorities, UN agencies, humanitarian organizations and other stakeholders to identify and develop adequate pandemic preparedness and response interventions at PoEs.

  • As of 28 February, 15 out of 71 assessed PoEs have been completely open to traffic, mostly to allow transport of goods to landlocked neighboring countries, including the Central African Republic (CAR) and Chad.

  • IOM provided the border health posts of Kentzou and Garoua Boulai in the East region with containers to house the COVID-19 testing teams.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • Health workers are present only in 33 out of 64 PoEs assessed and 45 per cent of PoEs are having personal protection equipment and handwashing stations.

  • 74 per cent of the PoEs does not have standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place to manage flows and detect travelers infected with the virus.

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Emergency Response

Operational support and logistics

Needs:

  • The internal review of the COVID 19 response enabled to identify needs in relation to the upcoming use of vaccines.

  • The need for strengthened cold chain for the country wide vaccination.

  • The need for a large-scale vaccine distribution network.

Response:

  • On 27 February, UNICEF’s Representative handed over the first consignment of 842 refrigerators to the Minister of Public Health, to provide health facilities that offer vaccination services. This delivery is part of a four-year project which will equip health facilities with at least 3,086 refrigerators, among other equipment, for a total cost of CFA $7 billion, jointly financed by the Government of Cameroon and UNICEF.

  • On 26 February, the Vaccine Global Access (COVAX) facility notified Cameroon about the allocation of 1,752,000 AstraZeneca/Oxford (SII) COVID-19 Vaccine doses.

Gaps & Constraints:

  • The maintenance service for newly received equipment is not guaranteed, especially for health districts in remote areas.

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