Libya

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Durable Solutions Strategy for internally displaced people (IDPs): a necessary step towards long-term recovery
  • Stockouts of critical vaccines in Libya putting children at risk of preventable diseases / COVID-19 Update
  • IOM Displaced Tracking Matrix Round 41 update
  • Humanitarian Access update
  • WASH sector: status of the Man-Made River Project
Group photo at the conclusion of an OCHA-led training on Multi-Sector Needs Assessment data collection for Ministry of Social Affairs enumerators in Tripoli. (OCHA\Ahmed Rih)

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Libya

Situation Report

Key Figures

0.8M
People in need
211k
People targeted
160k
People displaced in Libya
650k
Migrants and refugees in Libya
194k
People reached

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Libya

Situation Report

Funding

$113.8M
Required
$90M
Received
79%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Edmore Tondhlana

Officer in Charge

OCHA Libya

Office Email

Libya

Situation Report
Feature
Fellah I camp for displaced Tawerghans in Tripoli; The camp was evicted in May 2022 (OCHA/Ahmed Rih)

Durable Solutions Strategy for internally displaced people: a necessary step towards long-term recovery

In the aftermath of Libya’s decade-long armed conflict, hundreds of thousands of Libyans were displaced, with political instability and insecurity, as well as the lack of rule of law, preventing internally displaced people (IDPs) to return to their places and communities of origin. Although the security situation improved significantly since the signing of the Ceasefire Agreement in October 2020 and the subsequent formation of the Government of National Unity (GNU) in March 2021, creating favorable conditions for displaced populations to return, there remain an estimated 160,000 IDPs as identified by IOM's Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). Since DTM began recording population movements in 2016, a total of 673,554 individuals have returned to their areas of origin, with 98 per cent of the key informants reporting returning due to the improved security situation.

The pace of people returning is slowing, however, as those still displaced face more systemic impediments to return, such as houses damaged due to armed conflict and the lack of access to public services upon return, as well as personal security and social cohesion. Those displaced for a protracted period face uncertainty, with critical protection risks persisting, including an increase in the number of forced evictions.

On 2 May 2022, for instance, two IDP settlements in Tripoli, Fallah 1 and Fallah 2, comprising a total of 506 families, were given notice to leave the premises the following day. On 30 May, the Dawaa Eslameya IDP settlement in Tripoli, hosting 113 Tawerghan families, was ordered to vacate the premises, without the provision for an alternative solution addressing their decade-long protracted displacement status. These incidents highlighted once again the need to find a durable solution for IDPs.

The Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s (IASC) Framework on durable solutions for internally displaced persons provides that "a durable solution is achieved when internally displaced persons no longer have any specific assistance and protection needs that are linked to their displacement and can enjoy their human rights without discrimination on account of their displacement.” Securing a truly durable solution is thus a long-term process of gradually diminishing these needs which requires interventions from across the humanitarian, development and peacebuilding spectrum.

Recognizing the need for a national framework to advance durable solutions for IDPs based on the international and protection standards, in late 2021 the Libyan authorities requested the support of the Swiss Development and Cooperation Agency (SDC) regarding the development of a national Durable Solutions Strategy. The SDC then seconded a Durable Solutions Advisor to the Office of the Resident Coordinator (RCO) to spearhead this initiative, in close collaboration with the Ministry of Internal Displacement and Human Rights. The national Durable Solutions Strategy will encompass both IDPs and returnees who have not yet achieved a durable solution, while paying attention to the impacts of displacement on host communities and other crisis-affected communities. The Strategy looks not only at the safe and voluntary return of IDPs to their places of origin as a solution, but also considers integration in new communities through local integration or resettlement to other areas in the country. It is based on a number of key principles, including the participation of IDPs and other affected communities, a rights- and needs-based approach, the centrality of protection and a contextualized area-based approach taking into account the specificities of each IDP caseloads. Since the primary responsibility to establish conditions and provide the means that allow IDPs to achieve a durable solution lies with national authorities, the Libyan Government is expected to allocate the necessary resources.

The implementation of the national Durable Solutions Strategy will be supported by the international community in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) for the period 2023-2025 recently agreed upon, between the UN and the Libyan government. The UNSDCF integrates a Collective Outcome on Durable Solutions for IDPs which will guide the work of the UN and its partners when it comes to supporting the implementation of the Durable Solutions Strategy. The overall objective, as stated in the UNSDCF Collective Outcome on durable solutions for IDPs, is to facilitate the attainment of durable solutions for 80 per cent of IDPs and returnees by 2025, taking fully into account the situation of communities hosting or receiving them. The national Durable Solutions Strategy has been finalized in July 2022, and its formal adoption by the Libyan government is expected to soon follow. Once adopted, the Strategy's implementation will extend until 2025, in line with the timeframe of the UNSDCF.

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Libya

Situation Report
Analysis
Eight-month-old Ahmed is vaccinated at a WHO-supported primary health care centre in Sabha. (WHO)

Stockouts of critical vaccines in Libya putting children at risk of preventable diseases

Libya's healthcare system has been slowly recovering in the aftermath of years of conflict and the easing of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, despite being a resource-rich country, the country still faces many challenges when it comes to providing adequate healthcare for its people.

Libya continues to face repeated stockouts of critical routine immunization vaccines and essential medicines, as procurement orders are delayed due to lengthy governmental approval processes. With the current political challenges in Libya, the health care system is further strained due to a lack of cohesion between competing government structures, impacting the procurement and distribution of essential medicines and vaccines, as well as to implement effective public health initiatives.

According to UNICEF, vaccination centres across Libya are facing stockouts of most critical routine child immunization vaccines, including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), as well as hepatitis B (HepB), rotavirus, and hexavalent and pentavalent vaccines, putting the lives and health of over a quarter of a million children under one year of age at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases.

UNICEF works closely with the Libyan health authorities to upgrade the country's cold chain system, ensuring that vaccines are stored properly at the correct temperature at vaccination centers. These upgrades also include the installation of power generators and training for over 4,000 health workers at vaccination centers. In addition, UNICEF donated 500,000 doses of polio vaccine to Libya to help address the stockout of this critical vaccine.

There are also chronic shortages of medicines, equipment and supplies, with public health facilities offering a standard package of essential health care services. The Health Sector estimates that 80 per cent of Primary Health Care (PHC) centres lack essential medicines. Medicines that are supplied through specialized centers, such as for the treatment of tuberculosis, renal, cancer, and HIV, as well as mental illness and family planning, are limited or not available at public health facilities.

The Health Sector is working together with national public health facilities in Libya to strengthen the healthcare system in improving procurement and supply chain management mechanisms. Additionally, continued investment in public health infrastructure and workforce is needed to ensure that essential health services can be delivered effectively.

COVID-19 Update

In mid-April 2022, Libya’s COVID-19 community transmission (CT) classification was downgraded from CT3 to CT2 (moderate incidence) and by mid-May, the classification was further downgraded to CT1 (low incidence). May saw a marked decrease in the incidence of COVID-19 cases observed in Libya, while no deaths were reported. The overall number of new cases reported in May showed a 75 per cent decrease (87 cases) from April; however, by June, a minor increase in case incidence and a decline in the lab testing rate was noted.

As of 30 June, the National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) reported that there are 502,189 cumulative COVID-19 cases, including 6,430 deaths, and 64 active cases. A total of 2.27 million people received one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 1.2 million people received two doses and 139,514 people received a booster dose. In addition, the NCDC, in partnership with IOM, continued the vaccination campaign targeting migrants and refugees, including those in detention centres, with a total of 12,765 individuals having received at least one dose, and 3,292 received two doses, and 640 have received three doses by 25 June. On 18 May, WHO delivered COVID-19 genome sequencing reagent, primers and instruments to NCDC public health reference lab, which will further strengthen the country's capacity to detect new variants and track the spread of the virus and take appropriate measures to prevent its spread.

The NDCD also confirmed that Libya has no incidence of the Monkeypox virus.

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Libya

Situation Report
Analysis

IOM Displaced Tracking Matrix Round 41 update

The latest IOM Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) IDP and Returnee Report Round 41, covering data collection from February to April 2022, shows a reduction in the number of internally displaced people down to 159,996, from 168,011 at the end of January 2022. Although the number of IDPs is decreasing, the trend has slowed. These IDPs face risks of protracted displacement, with challenges posed by damaged houses and infrastructure in their places of origin, lack of public services upon return such as access to quality health and education services, and also continued insecurity or protection risks faced by several communities due to lack of social cohesion (for example affecting IDPs displaced from Murzuq). Since 2016 when tracking of population movements began, a total of 680,772 displaced persons (136,155 families) have returned to their places of origin, due to improvements in the security situation.

Although the number of internally displaced has been steadily decreasing, the migrant population increased further compared to previous, indicating a return to pre-pandemic migration dynamics, as most COVID-19 mobility restrictions were lifted, according to IOM DTM Migrant Report Round 41. Migrants in Libya face several challenges including significant barriers in accessing health services as up to 78 per cent of the migrants interviewed report having either no or limited access to essential health services. Additionally, one in five migrants also report facing challenges in accessing clean and sufficient drinking water, as 19 per cent of the migrants interviewed stated having insufficient access to clean drinking water.

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Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Displacement and return timeline (IOM/DTM IDP and Returnee Report Round 41)

Displacement and return timeline (IOM/DTM IDP and Returnee Report Round 41)

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Libya

Situation Report
Access

Humanitarian Access update

Although some positive development regarding access constraints were noted at the start of the year, humanitarian operations faced operational constraints due to lengthy processes on visa approvals for international staff, often issued for limited periods at a time. However, by June, the number of Bureaucratic and Administrative Impediments witnessed a decrease as the visa approval process for international staff working with INGOs gained momentum. Although improvements are noted, INGOs expressed concerns about the visa renewal processes, which are unclear and lengthy, and hinder proper planning when forecasting staffing on the ground.

Restrictions on financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals and transfers, continue to impact operations for most humanitarian organizations. The inability to access cash often impacts service delivery and the level of acceptance of humanitarians in the country. Conversations with the Central Bank of Libya to find common solutions keep ongoing.

Recent increase in military operations and armed conflict have impacted operations, as staff movements are being limited due to the security situation. In addition, the suspension of UNHAS flights due to the lack of funding, has impacted access for humanitarian partners to Benghazi, Sebha and Kufra. The last flights operated by UNHAS in June were also impacted by a change in focal point within the LNA to clear landing permissions, which led to the cancellation of flights on at least seven occasions. The issue was resolved through engagements with the LNA, and should UNHAS find funding to return, landing clearances should no longer be a challenge.

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Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Access constraints impacting humanitarians in Libya April - June 2022 (OCHA)

Access constraints impacting humanitarians in Libya April - June 2022 (OCHA)

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Libya

Situation Report
Background

WASH Sector: Status of operations at the Man-Made River Project

In May, several attacks, and acts of vandalism on the Man-Made River Project, including on the discharge valve main line at station 151, were reported in western Libya, leading to the disruption of water supply in several areas. The attacks are believed to have been illegal encroachments carried out by residents attempting to install water connections for their own use on private farms. The MMRP management indicated water shortage in areas of Ashawa, Sinaon, Nalut, and Awlad Mahmoud. However, following maintenance work, water pumping operations have since resumed normally.

In Libya, approximately 90 per cent of the population receive their water supply from three key sources: Man-Made River Project (MMRP), providing 60 per cent of the water supply; General Company of Water and Waste Management (well water network); and Desalination Plants (8 plants in total, operating at minimum capacity due to deterioration). An additional 10 per cent rely on borehole drilling. The increase in acts of vandalism targeting the MMRP is a key cause for concern, considering the fragile state of the water infrastructure in Libya. To address the mounting attacks, the government in 2021 passed the Law Number 7: Concerning the Protection of the Great Man-Made River Project, confirming it to be a strategic national project. As such, the Law 7 stipulates that “...whoever takes possession of land, facilities or buildings belonging to the project, or constructs facilities along its path or at any of its sites, or uses its water with illegal connections, shall be punished with imprisonment...”. Despite the passing of the law with its harsh punishments, attacks and acts of vandalism on the MMRP remain frequent.

The WASH sector, led by UNICEF, continues to work closely with national counterparts on emergency rehabilitation needs, however, funding for WASH-related activities remains low, with only 22 per cent of the required funds ($5.7M) are covered, while the lack of technical expertise at the national level remains challenging.

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Libya

Situation Report
Visual

Man Made River Detailed Map (WASH Sector Report 2021)

Man Made River Detailed Map (WASH Sector Report 2021)

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Libya

Situation Report
Coordination
Overview of OCHA’s activities for April, May and June 2022

Coordination Activity Report: April - June 2022

Highlights:

  • Over 60 coordination meetings were held by OCHA's East, West and South Sub-Offices in April, May and June, including meetings with the various sectors, partners, working groups and the Area Coordination Groups in the three regions.

  • On 30 May, OCHA kicked off a three-day workshop on Strategic Planning and Strengthening Coordination, with the mayors and municipal councilors from the south region. The workshop, organized by OCHA in partnership with IOM, WFP, UNDP, GIZ and UN Women, brought together 15 Mayors and seven female Councillors, along with representatives from UN agencies, Funds and Programmes, and INGOs to identify priorities and strategically plan for interventions, including capacity building needs and programmes for the southern region.

  • On 26 June, OCHA Libya, in partnership with the Ministry of Social Affairs (MoSA), REACH and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) kicked off a three-day training on data collection methodologies, tools and techniques for the Multi-Sector Needs Assessment (MSNA). A total of 35 MoSA enumerators participated in the training, with two more training sessions to follow in July and August targeting a total of 150 MoSA enumerators from West, South and East Libya.

  • The Humanitarian Access Unit has been engaging with partners, sector coordinators and other stakeholders on humanitarian access and response issues in the three regions, including Focus Group Discussion sessions on access to people with disabilities. The monthly Humanitarian Access Snapshot for April and May were also published. The HAU also carried out a mission to east Libya in late June to meet with partners and stakeholders to discuss humanitarian access issues in the region.

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