Sudan

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Around 442,000 people displaced in 2021, which is five-fold the number displaced in 2020, and the highest after 2014, according to the 2022 GRID Report.
  • Disasters, COVID-19, economic crisis, and worsening food insecurity increased competition for resources in 2021 and contributed to the rise in violence and displacement, IDMC says.
  • WFP received a donation of €2.5 million ($2.67 million) from Italy to support emergency nutrition activities in Sudan.
  • With this donation, WFP will be able to provide specialized nutritious food to over 160,000 children under-five and pregnant and nursing women in crisis-affected areas.
  • In 2022, WFP plans to assist up to 2.7 million children and pregnant and nursing women, however funding shortfalls may jeopardize this plan.
Darfur & Kordofan Conflict

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Sudan

Situation Report

Key Figures

9.8M
severely food-insecure people
10.9M
people targeted for assistance in 2022
1.1M
refugees
3.03M
internally displaced people
62,229
total people who contracted COVID-19
4,939
COVID-19-related deaths
60,167
Ethiopian refugees in the east & Blue Nile

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Sudan

Situation Report

Funding

$1.9B
Required
$289.4M
Received
15%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Justin Brady

Head of Office for OCHA Sudan (a.i.)

Sofie Karlsson

Head, Communications

James Steel

Head, Information Management

Alimbek Tashtankulov

Public Information Officer

Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis
IDMC GRID
Source: 2022 Global Report on Internal Displacement

Sudan: A five-fold increase in internal displacement in 2021 (2022 Global Report on Internal Displacement)

Report from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)

The humanitarian situation in Sudan deteriorated significantly in 2021, as inter-communal violence intensified and the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) increased to 3.2 million. Around 442,000 internal displacements were reported during the year, more than five times the figure for the previous year and the highest since 2014. The increase was mainly the result of the escalating violence, but better access to affected areas also improved the quantity and quality of data available, painting a more accurate picture of the displacement situation.

Violence across the country, and mainly in Darfur, stems mostly from inter-communal disputes over land, grazing routes and other resources. Clashes between nomads, farmers, herders and other groups date back many years, particularly during the harvest season. Disasters, COVID-19, a severe economic crisis and worsening food insecurity intensified competition for resources in 2021 and contributed to the steep rise in violence and displacement.

Shifting power dynamics after the fall of Omar al-Bashir in 2019 have also played a role. The transitional government and an array of non-state armed groups (NSAGs) signed the Juba Peace Agreement (JPA) in October 2020, with the aim of tackling key issues such as land, IDPs’ return, transitional justice, security sector reform and political representation.

Implementation, however, has faced challenges and delays. Notably, not all of the country’s NSAGs signed the agreement and some communities feel excluded. Cattle-herding communities in Darfur in particular fear being evicted if the traditional system of land ownership is fully restored and IDPs return to what used to be their land, as envisaged in the JPA. They have not traditionally been allocated their own land and rely on accessing that of others along their migration routes. Tensions arising from the fear of losing control of resources descended into violent clashes between communities across Darfur in 2021. A number of villages and displacement sites were affected, particularly in North and West Darfur, where land is contested. The withdrawal of the United Nations-African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) in June also left a security vacuum that reduced protection for civilians, including IDPs.

Around 422,000 displacements were reported in Darfur during the year. Armed clashes in Ag Geneina in West Darfur triggered more than 170,000 in January, surpassing the country-wide figure for 2020 in three days. Around 104,000 people were still displaced in the town as of the end of the year, many living in overcrowded shelters with no access to water, sanitation or other essential services. Inter-communal violence also triggered 48,000 displacements in Tawila in North Darfur on 31 July and 1 August, and tens of thousands more elsewhere in the country during the year, including in West and South Kordofan.

The humanitarian response was worryingly underfunded as of the end of the year. This, combined with deepening insecurity and an uncertain political landscape after the military took control of the government on 25 October, represent major barriers for IDPs’ pursuit of durable solutions. Around 56 per cent of Sudan’s IDPs have been displaced for more than ten years, highlighting the protracted nature of this crisis.

To tackle these challenges, the national authorities in collaboration with the UN and other stakeholders have set up a durable solutions working group and drafted a national strategy on the issue for IDPs, returnees, refugees and host communities. These initiatives have laid the foundations for and built momentum toward bringing a definitive end to displacement. Sustaining them is much needed, given the scale of the phenomenon and the extent of IDPs’ ongoing needs. Political solutions are equally needed to address the causes of violence, including through implementation of the JPA.

To read the 2022 Global Report on Internal Displacement, click here

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Sudan

Situation Report
Feature
Malnutrition-assessment-at-WFP-supported-clinic-in-Tahadai-Oasis eastern-Sudan WFP-Abubakar-Garelnebi
Malnutrition assessment at a WFP-supported clinic in Tahadai Oasis, eastern Sudan. Credit: WFP/Abubakar Garelnebi

WFP News Release - Italy provides new funding for tackling malnutrition in Sudan

23 May 2022

Khartoum – The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) in Sudan has received a donation of EUR 2.5 million from the Government of Italy through the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (AICS) to support emergency nutrition activities in Sudan. “We are extremely grateful to the Government of Italy for this contribution, especially at this time when humanitarian needs in Sudan are drastically increasing,” said WFP Sudan Representative and Country Director Eddie Rowe.

The contribution will enable WFP to provide specialized nutritious food to over 160,000 children under-five and pregnant and nursing women in crisis-affected areas to treat and prevent malnutrition.

“As Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) donor convener, Italy is deeply committed in supporting projects to address the causes of food insecurity and malnutrition. In particular, ongoing conflict, the COVID-19 pandemic, hikes in food prices and inflation will drastically increase the number of malnourished children. We are glad to support WFP to prevent a massive malnutrition crisis for the children of Sudan” said AICS Khartoum Director, Michele Morana.

Malnutrition is a major public health concern in Sudan. Around 13.6 percent of children are acutely malnourished (too thin for height) and 36 percent are stunted (too short for age), posing increased risks of morbidity and mortality for children under five. Malnutrition also has severe cognitive and development consequences for children later in life.

“Every child deserves to grow up and live a healthy life free from hunger. WFP counts on the continued support from our donors to do all we can to give children a chance to develop and thrive,” said Rowe.

Thanks to contributions from donors, WFP managed to scale up its nutrition response in 2021 and assisted 2.5 million people in Sudan, a significant increase from the 0.9 million reached in 2020. Based on this success, WFP plans to assist up to 2.7 million children and pregnant and nursing women this year, however severe funding shortfalls may jeopardize this plan.

# # #

For more information please contact:

George Fominyen, WFP/ Rome, Mob. +39 3499336721

Tomson Phiri, WFP/ Geneva, Mob. +41 79 842 8057

Leni Kinzli, WFP/Sudan, Mob. +249 91 277 1269

Abdulaziz Abdulmomin, WFP/Sudan, Mob. +249 91 216 7055

Click here for the PDF document

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

Sudan Humanitarian Update, April 2022

HIGHLIGHTS

  • In April, over 56,000 people were displaced due to inter-communal conflict in West Darfur, South Darfur and South Kordofan states (IOM).

  • In Kassala State, up to 400 people were displaced following a dispute over land ownership in Reifi Kassala locality.

  • Over 3,000 Sudanese refugees have returned to Blue Nile State from Ethiopia's Benishangul-Gumuz region.

  • Former UNAMID Logistics Base in El Fasher, North Darfur looted.

  • Conflict, economic crisis, and poor harvests are affecting people’s access to food and 18 million people may face acute hunger by September (FAO, WFP).

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Thousands displaced due to inter-communal conflict in Darfur, Kordofan and Kassala

In April 2022, over 56,000 people have been displaced due to inter-communal conflict in West Darfur, South Darfur and South Kordofan, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Armed clashes between Arab nomads and Masalit communities erupted on 22 April in West Darfur’s Kereneik locality, which were triggered by the reported killing of two Arab tribesmen in Kereneik town by unknown people. The Executive Director of Kereneik reported that as of early May, an estimated 98,000 people (19,600 families) have been displaced in 16 gathering sites in Kereneik town, while about 12,500 nomads (2,493 families) have been affected by the conflict. In addition, at least 165 people were killed and 136 people were injured during the clashes. These numbers have yet to be verified. There are also reports of many families in Kereneik hosting IDP families. During the conflict, 16 villages across Kereneik locality were affected, of which six were completely looted and burned, according to the International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix (IOM DTM).

The Executive Director of Kereneik locality reported that the majority of those who took refuge in the military camp have returned to their homes leaving behind those whose villages were burned and who now need urgent shelter assistance.

The Federal Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) sent tents for distribution to the returnees, food, non-food items (NFIs) and provided them with water assistance. Local authorities have asked humanitarian partners to provide more shelter assistance. The priority needs in Kereneik identified during missions carried out on 30 April (NGOs) and 4 May (UN Inter-Agency) include access to safe water, food, shelter and non-food items (S/NFIs), health services, and medicines. During the mission, partners provided initial health, S/NFIs and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) supplies, and repaired three water pumps damaged during the conflict. The Executive Director of Kereneik commended humanitarian efforts to assist the nomadic community as this will reduce tensions between the communities and improve reconciliation efforts.

The fighting in Kereneik spilled over into Ag Geneina with fighting between the two communities reported in various neighbourhoods. On 24 April, the local authorities in Ag Geneina have imposed a curfew at Ag Geneina market from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am the next day. Partners report that people from Althawra and Buhaira neighbourhoods and IDPs from the Qadima school gathering site have displaced towards the northern part of Ag Geneina town, and people also fled El Jebel Area to gathering sites in Ag Geneina town.

At least 2,900 people (569 families) were displaced from Kabos area in Ar Rashad locality, South Kordofan State following an inter-communal dispute on 9 April between members of the Kawahla and Al-Bedaria tribes against the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) Al-Hilu faction, according to IOM DTM. The IDPs are currently seeking shelter in Albatira village in Abu Jubayhah locality, South Kordofan. IOM field teams report that one person was killed, and many people lost their possessions, cattle and/or livestock. The priority needs of the IDPs are food, emergency shelter, as well as water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. The IDPs are seeking shelter in gathering sites/open areas (46 per cent); with the host community (41 per cent); and in schools or public buildings (13 per cent).

In Kassala State, inter-communal clashes erupted on 1 April between the Sebderat and Beni Amir tribes in Eid-Siddna village in Reifi Kassala locality, Kassala State, over land ownership leaving one person dead and others injured. Between 200 and 400 people (40 - 80 families) were displaced to Hafara village, while others reportedly crossed the border into Eritrea. Several people were killed, and dozens wounded from all sides, while some houses in affected villages were torched. By 7 April, leaders of the Beni Amer, Habab, and Sibarat tribes agreed to end inter-communal clashes.

In addition, border conflict was reported in Kassala State. Military sources told the media on 6 April that there have been clashes between the Sudanese and Ethiopian forces on the border in the fertile agricultural area of Al Fashaga. The military sources reported tensions, occasional clashes and “intrusions” by Ethiopian militias in Al Fashaga. There have been no reports of civilian displacement or other impacts on civilians following the reports of fighting in the area.

Looting of former UNAMID logistics base in El Fasher, North Darfur

The UN security reported that on 4 April night a group of local residents attempted to forcefully enter the former UN-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Logistics Base in El Fasher, North Darfur with the intent of looting the premises. The government security personnel guarding the premises used teargas and fired gunshots into the air to scare away the perpetrators. In the early morning of 5 April, an unruly crowd overwhelmed the security personnel and entered the compound and started looting it, while the security personnel guarding the premises withdrew. To ensure the safety and security around UN premises, additional police personnel onboard three trucks were deployed to the area upon request from UN security. The looting of the former UNAMID Compound continued throughout the day of 5 April. This is the third instance of looting over the past few months as the UNAMID former base in El Fasher was looted earlier once on 24 December 2021 after it was handed over to the Sudanese authorities and the second time on 11 January 2022.

Sudanese refugees continue to return to Blue Nile State

The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) reported that as of mid-May more than 3,000 Sudanese refugees had returned to Blue Nile State from Ethiopia's Benishangul-Gumuz region. Over time returns were also observed from neighbouring countries, including South Sudan and, on a smaller scale, Uganda; processes are in place to verify their presence and identify their locations of return. UNHCR and partners continuously monitor the situation to verify refugee returnees' arrivals and assess their needs.

Concerns over increasing food insecurity

The spread of dry spells and crop failure in 115 localities in 14 states across Sudan have affected 5.6 million people, while high prices of agricultural inputs affected the harvest, which is down by around 35 per cent compared to the previous year. The Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL) sector estimates that the number of people in need (PiN) for FSL support in 2022 has reached around 15.7 million, which will be confirmed after the finalization of the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) 2022 analysis for Sudan. The Sudan IPC analysis 2022 is ongoing and the final number of food-insecure people for the current and projected periods will be available in June 2022.

The combined effects of conflict, economic crisis, and poor harvests are significantly affecting people’s access to food and will likely double the number of people facing acute hunger in Sudan to more than 18 million people by September 2022, according to a joint statement by FAO and WFP issued on 23 March.

Sudan is expected to face high humanitarian assistance needs through September 2022 due to the macroeconomic crisis and below-average harvest driving high food prices and declining household purchasing power, FEWS NET said in its April 2022 update. The number of households facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and worse outcomes is expected to remain high, particularly among IDP households, refugees, and poor pastoral, agropastoral, and urban households affected by a below-average harvest and low purchasing power. In March and April, staple food prices have continued to increase, attributed primarily to reduced market supplies following the below-average harvest, the extremely high production and transportation costs, the devaluation of the SDG, and the above-average demand for local wheat due to the high cost and shortages of imported wheat and wheat flour. In April 2022, staple food prices increased on average 10-15 per cent compared to March and remained 200-250 per cent higher than the respective prices of 2021 and over four to five times higher than the five-year average, FEWS NET reported.

The war in Ukraine is compounding the existing challenges as it disrupted agricultural production and trade from one of the world's major food-exporting regions. The war threatens to drive rising food prices still higher and create scarcity, especially for countries like Sudan that depend on wheat and other exports (sunflower oil) from Russia and Ukraine. Since 2016, Russia and Ukraine accounted for more than half of Sudan’s imported wheat, according to the International Food Police Research Institute.

Against this backdrop, FSL partners have provided 3.9 million people in Sudan with food and livelihood assistance from January-March 2022, according to the HRP 2022 Periodic Monitoring Report. This includes 3.2 million people who were reached with food assistance and another 700,000 people with livelihood support. This 3.9 million reached people is equivalent to about 46 per cent of the overall annual target. However, in most of the 66 reached localities (out of the total 189 localities of Sudan) people assisted received only half food rations due to the increased needs and low funding.

Humanitarian funding

The funding of the 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for Sudan is low. HRP 2022 has so far only received US$249.1 million or 12.9 per cent of the total required amount of $1.94 billion, with a remaining gap of $1.69 billion. The UN and humanitarian partners call on donors to support the Sudanese people and provide expedient funding for humanitarian operations as the economic crisis, inflation, food insecurity and other challenges increase the needs and their gravity, and deprivation.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

Sudan Humanitarian Update, March 2022

HIGHLIGHTS

  • An estimated 6,900 people were displaced by inter-communal conflict in West, North and South Darfur states in March 2022.

  • In March, conflict in West Darfur’s Jebel Moon locality left 17 people dead, three villages burned, six villages partially burned, and up to 12,500 people displaced to neighbouring localities, into the Jebel Moon mountains and across the border into Chad.

  • A total of 8,127 people were displaced in Sudan due to conflict and natural disasters during March, according to IOM.

  • In 2021, humanitarian partners reached over 8.7 million people—out of the 8.9 million people targeted—across Sudan with some form of humanitarian assistance.

  • Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) cases are on the rise in Gedaref State with 303 cases reported, including 91 cases among children under the age of five, and eight associated deaths since January.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

The economic situation in Sudan continued to take a turn for the worse in March 2022. The political crisis severely impacted the Sudanese economy, resulting in interrupted access to markets and reduced income-earning opportunities, market activities and trade flows. This led to higher prices and supply shortages of basic goods, including medicine, wheat, fuel and agricultural inputs. It further resulted in reduced purchasing power and increased food insecurity, deepening vulnerability in the population – many of whom remain in need of basic services and assistance, according to the most recent report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Sudan.

On 9 March, the authorities increased the prices of fuel, and the petrol price increased from 408 Sudanese pounds (SDG) to 547 SDG (34 per cent increase) per litre. The price of diesel also increased from 390 SDG to 505 SDG (30 per cent increase) per litre. On 20 March, petrol prices increased to 672 SDG ($1.08 at the exchange rate of 620 SDG to the dollar) per litre from 542 SDG ($1.03 at the exchange rate of 526 SDG to the dollar at that time), while the price of diesel increased to 642 SDG per litre from 505 SDG. The increase will likely lead to a further increase in living and transportation costs, compounding an already dire food security situation across the country.

The Sudanese pound reached its lowest level of 600 pounds against the US dollar. The suspension of over US$2.7 billion in economic support from the international community, low foreign exchange reserves, limited economic activity, and continued political instability resulted in the depreciation of the Sudanese pound, with its rate against the US dollar at commercial banks increasing from about 442 SDG at the beginning of 2022 to over 565 SDG by 31 March 2022, according to the Central Bank of Sudan (CBoS).

On 8 March, CBoS announced the liberalization of the exchange rate of the Sudanese pound letting banks and exchange companies determine the price of the local currency. This decision came after months of divergence between the official exchange rate and the black-market rate. The consequent increase in food prices will continue to limit household purchasing power, which in turn is expected to increase people’s vulnerability. The increases in food and transportation prices (50-100 per cent greater than last year), and the cost of the local food basket (over 120 per cent greater than last year), are negatively impacting the purchasing power of poor households, FEWS NET reported. While the inflation rate has shown a downward turn since reaching a peak of 423 per cent in July 2021, it remains high at 258 per cent in February 2022.

Commercial banks began responding to the decision by raising the US dollar exchange rate to between 530 SDG and 570 SDG. Reports indicate that the value of the local currency has depreciated twenty times during the last five years by 2,000 per cent. Humanitarian partners that planned their budgets/activities in local currency are facing challenges related to funding gaps as a result of the exchange rate exposure. According to some humanitarian partners, the estimated loss over the past month due to exchange rate fluctuations was about US$5 million and some interventions have been halted as a result.

In 2021, humanitarian partners reached over 8.7 million people—out of the 8.9 million people targeted—across Sudan with some form of humanitarian assistance. About 5.3 million people received food assistance and 2.8 million people were reached with livelihoods support. About 5.4 million people received basic health services, while more than 1.3 million people were provided with access to safe water. Over 490,000 people were provided with sanitation facilities and 2.5 million people were reached with hygiene activities. About 280,000 children were treated for severe acute malnutrition.

In 2022, the humanitarian situation in Sudan has continued to deteriorate, driven by protracted displacement, economic crisis, increased inter-communal conflict, dry spells and food insecurity. Humanitarian partners aim to provide humanitarian assistance and support 10.9 million of the most vulnerable people in Sudan at a cost of US$1.9 billion through the 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP). As of 31 March, donors have generously donated $166.1 million (8.6 per cent) of the requirement. Humanitarian organizations continue to advocate for timely and flexible funding as the severity of the needs of vulnerable people is increasing.

An estimated 6,900 people were forced to flee their homes due to conflict

In March 2022, tensions and conflict between communities were reported in West Darfur, North Darfur, and South Darfur states forcing 6,900 people to flee their homes.

In West Darfur’s Jebel Moon locality, 17 people were killed, three villages were burned, six villages were partially burned, and up to 12,500 people were displaced to neighbouring localities, into the Jebel Moon mountains and across the border into Chad. These clashes were a continuation of a conflict that erupted in the area in mid-November 2021 over a land dispute and claimed dozens of lives, loss of property and caused displacement. Community leaders in Sirba and Kulbus localities report that the conflicts in Jebel Moon and Kereneik localities are also affecting people in their localities, as armed nomads allegedly kill and loot as they pass through on their way to or back from Jebel Moon.

In North Darfur, about 3,500 people fled their homes in As Serief and Kutum localities in March due to inter-communal conflict, according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM). In As Serief locality, initial reports indicate that four people were killed, another nine were injured, 900 people were displaced, and nine houses were torched. In addition, crops in farms around Gusa Janoub were destroyed, putting people at risk of food insecurity.

In South Darfur, conflict erupted between two nomadic tribes in Gereida and Tulus localities on 29 March. It is estimated that over 100 people have been killed, of whom six are reportedly children. The clashes are reported to stem from an incident on 26 March when a nomadic tribesman was killed by unknown perpetrators while traveling from Gereida town to Buram village. The nomadic tribe blamed the other nomadic tribe of the killing, and mobilized forces to attack the tribe’s villages on 29 March.

On 30 March, the villages of Sanam El Naga, Abu Jabra and Hadoub in Gereida locality were burned, according to the IOM Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). The Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) reported that the inhabitants of Hadoub village, about 500 people (100 families) took their livestock and sought protection near a Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) military base in the Dika area on the outskirts of Gereida town. Most of them are women and children, are living out in the open and need shelter, food, as well as water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) assistance, HAC said. HAC also reported that on 31 March Dika and Dagama villages were attacked; Dika was burned, according to IOM DTM and its inhabitants also took refuge close to the military base near Gereida town. HAC and a humanitarian organisation have so far registered about 1,760 people (352 families) displaced in the Dika area. To control the situation, the local authorities deployed joint security forces to the conflict areas to create a buffer between the two tribes. Humanitarian partners estimate that about 15,000 people (3,000 families) will likely be affected by the conflict, with displacement to Tulus and Shergeila localities, and camps in Nyala anticipated.

An inter-agency assessment to Gereida was carried out on 6 April. Preliminary humanitarian supplies such as non-food items (NFIs), food and dignity kits were distributed to the affected people in the Dika area. Emergency health services are being provided to the people displaced in the Dika area and one medical kit was given to the Nyala teaching hospital to treat injured cases referred from Gereida. Dignity kits and information on gender-based violence (GBV) will be given to the affected people, and any GBV cases will be investigated.

Overall, across Sudan, a total of 8,127 people were displaced during the month of March, according to IOM. This includes 6,932 people displaced by conflict and 1,195 people displaced due to fire incidents.

Exploitative protections situations have developed in parts of West Darfur

According to humanitarian partners, exploitative protection situations have emerged in Sirba, Jebel Moon and Kereneik localities in West Darfur State. In some cases, nomads provide farmers with protection for a fee or compensation. In Sirba locality, six villages pay nomads for protection, which includes sharing half of their food stocks. In Jebel Moon locality, residents of three villages pay nomads 500,000 SDG (US$1,125) per village for protection. At the same time, residents in a village in Kereneik locality report that nomads protect them at no cost. Villagers told humanitarians that any assistance provided must include nomads as it would undermine existing peaceful co-existence and protection arrangements with the nomads and risk conflict and looting.

Kala-azar on the rise in Gedaref State

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 303 Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) cases—including 91 cases among children under the age of five, and eight associated deaths—have been reported in Gedaref state since January, putting the case fatality rate (CFR) at 2.7 per cent. Kala-azar is endemic in Gedaref and over the past couple of years the number of cases in the state has been increasing. About 2,100 cases were reported in 2019; 2,136 cases in 2020; and 2,973 cases in 2021. Key challenges to eradicate Kala-azar include lack of medical staff, adequate training for the staff, continuous stock out or shortfalls in medicines; lack of vector control activities; lack of funding for health promotion and community awareness activities; lack of health partners willing to support the Kala-azar projects; and lack of government support and commitment to eradicate the disease.

Kala-azar has irregular bouts of fever, weight loss, enlargement of the spleen and liver, and anaemia. Kala-azar parasites are transmitted through the bites of infected female sandflies, which feed on blood to produce eggs and if left untreated could lead to death in 95 per cent of cases. Poverty increases the risk for Kala-azar where poor housing and unsanitary conditions (such as a lack of waste management or open sewage) may increase sandfly breeding and resting sites. Human behaviour, such as sleeping outside or on the ground, may increase the risk of getting Kala-azar. Prevention and control of Kala-azar requires a combination of intervention strategies, including early diagnosis and effective prompt treatment; vector; and effective disease surveillance; control of animal reservoir hosts is complex and should be tailored to the local situation.

COVID-19

The number of COVID-19 reported suspected cases during week 16 of 2022 indicated a 42.4 per cent decrease compared to the same duration of week 15 of 2022, with the reported cases seeing a decline, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). During the week of 16, Khartoum State reported 55.2 per cent of COVID-19 suspected cases and 28.5 per cent of the confirmed cases followed by River Nile State recording 31 per cent of the week’s suspected cases and 71.4 per cent of the confirmed cases. Since the start of the pandemic, 61,955 people tested positive for COVID-19, including 4,907 deaths, as of 31 March 2022. About 7 per cent of Sudan’s 47.9 million people are fully vaccinated against COVID-19. UN agencies and partners are supporting the Federal Ministry of Health with vaccines and logistics for vaccination.

For further information, please contact: Sofie Karlsson, Head of Communications and Analysis, OCHA Sudan, karlsson2@un.org, Tel: +249 (0) 912 17 44 56 For more information, please visit www.unocha.org or Reliefweb

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Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Flash 01 WD Kereneik Ag Geneina conflict 25Apr22

Flash Update: Kereneik & Ag Geneina Inter-communal Conflict, No. 04 (9 May 2022)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • The Executive Director of Kereneik reported that about 98,000 people have been displaced by the conflict.

  • At least 165 people were killed and 136 injured during the clashes, according to local authorities.

  • WFP dispatched 363 metric tons (MT) of food for 130,000 people in Kereneik locality.

  • Partners estimate that 8,000 children need protection support.

  • Humanitarians are targeting 8,000 families (40,000 people) in Kereneik for shelter and non-food item assistance.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Fighting between Arab nomads and Masalit tribes in West Darfur’s Kereneik and Ag Geneina localities was last reported on 25 April. The fighting between the two communities started on 22 April following the discovery of two deceased Arab nomads on 21 April near Hashaba village in Kereneik locality. The security situation improved after the deployment of security forces in Kereneik town, and no fighting has been reported. Security forces deployed to Kereneik will remain in the locality to protect the farming season and help in reconciliation activities. More security forces will be deployed to the locality.

The Executive Director of Kereneik reported that at least 165 people were killed and 136 people were injured during the clashes. In addition, an estimated 98,000 people (19,600 families) have been displaced in 16 gathering sites in Kereneik town, while about 12,500 nomads (2,493 families) have been affected by the conflict. There are also reports of many families in Kereneik hosting IDP families. During the conflict, 16 villages across Kereneik locality were a¬ffected, of which six were completely looted and burned, according to the International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix (IOM DTM).

The Executive Director of Kereneik locality reported that the majority of those who took refuge in the military camp have returned to their homes leaving behind those whose villages were burned and who now need urgent shelter assistance. The Federal Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) sent tents for distribution to the returnees, food, non-food items (NFIs) and provided them with water assistance. Local authorities have asked humanitarian partners to provide more shelter assistance. The priority needs in Kereneik identified during missions carried out on 30 April (NGOs) and 4 May (UN Inter-Agency) include access to safe water, food, shelter and non-food items (S/NFIs), health services, and medicines. During the mission, partners provided initial health, S/NFIs and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) supplies, and repaired three water pumps damaged during the conflict. The Executive Director of Kereneik commended humanitarian efforts to assist the nomadic community as this will reduce tensions between the communities and improve reconciliation efforts.

On 4 May, the state security committee met with nomad leaders, who indicated they welcomed reconciliation and were ready to sign a peace agreement with the Masalit. To show good faith, the nomads have secured the Kereneik – Ag Geneina road, which is now open for movement. They will also secure the Kereneik – Umtajok, Kereneik – Um Shalaya, and Kereneik – Mukshasha roads in the coming days.

SECTOR UPDATE & RESPONSE

Education

According to reports received, 12 schools were either looted or burned while 23 schoolchildren and six teachers were reportedly killed, and 23 students were injured during the conflict. All schools in Kereneik town are closed and most of the schools are occupied by the new IDPs. Over 1,496 Grade 6 and 8 students in Kereneik town are expected to take the national general examinations on 16 and 28 May. Since some of the schools were damaged during the conflict the students need support to take these exams. The rehabilitation of affected education facilities; provision of furniture; the training of teachers and parent-teacher associations (PTAs) on education in emergencies (EiE) and peacebuilding; bringing in teachers; and supplying student kits are a priority. Partners are planning to carry out a damage assessment for education facilities to determine response activities.

Food Security and Livelihoods (FSL)

Food and livelihood needs are high as many people lost all their food stocks and possessions during the conflict and are unable to carry out their usual livelihood activities.

Response

  • WFP has dispatched 363 metric tons (MT) of food enough for one-month food rations for 130,000 people (26,000 families) in Kereneik locality. Distribution will be carried out once the verification process is completed.

  • FAO will provide livestock emergency services in Kereneik.

Health and Nutrition

Health and nutrition services were disrupted due to the conflict. In Galala, the health facility is not functioning due to a lack of medical staff. Medical supplies are available at the health facility. In Kereneik, the hospital is fully functional except for the operation room which does not have staff. Kereneik hospital receives about 400 patients a day which is too much for the three medical staff and one midwife currently available. All immunization services have stopped, but vaccines are available. Nutrition services have started but Ready-to-Use Therapeutic food (RUCF) supplies have run out and some supplies were looted. Nutrition partners plan to carry out a mass mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening among children under five years of age.

Response

  • Efforts are underway to identify medical personnel from the community in Galala to work and to get staff seconded from the State Ministry of Health (SMoH) .

  • A mobile clinic from Ag Geneina will be sent to Galala to provide health services.

  • A doctor has been deployed from Khartoum to Kereneik hospital.

Protection

All community-based protection networks have been disrupted. Humanitarian partners have observed many elderly people at the gathering sites in Kereneik as well as people with special needs (PSN). Psychosocial support (PSS) needs are high among the affected communities, but available staff is limited. In addition, people, including children, are at risk of abuse and many gender-based violence (GBV) cases have been reported during the conflict.

Response

  • Community-based protection networks will be established to monitor protection issues and UNHCR will train members of the networks.

  • Cash interventions and PSS will be provided.

Child protection

There are reports that 24 children were killed and 28 injured/maimed during the violence. There is a high risk of abuse and children do not feel safe. Community-based networks have been disrupted and there are no child-friendly spaces. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) risks are also high, and four children were seriously injured when a UXO exploded.

Response

  • Partners estimate that about 8,000 children need protection support.

  • PSS will be provided to children through mobile child-friendly spaces.

  • Mine-risk awareness will be carried out.

  • Recreational kits are expected from Khartoum.

Gender-based violence

Several GBV incidents have been reported including cases of sexual violence and sexual harassment.

Response

  • Humanitarians have dispatched 4,000 dignity kits for distribution in Kereneik.

  • A women’s safe space will be constructed.

  • Community protection networks will be re-established.

Shelter and non-food items (S/NFIs)

Humanitarian partners are targeting 8,000 families (40,000 people) for S/NFI assistance.

Response

  • 2,000 NFI kits have been distributed.

  • An additional 3,000 NFI kits will be transported to Kereneik soon.

  • More S/NFI kits will be moved from other areas to Kereneik.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)

Many of the water yards were damaged during the conflict and fuel was stolen and the majority of the IDPs in Kereneik are drinking water from unprotected sources, which could lead to possible health risks.

Response

  • More WASH staff will be sent to Kereneik to coordinate response and ensure that supplies reach the people in need.

  • UNICEF sent five barrels of fuel for water yards.

  • Water bladders were sent to replace those damaged.

  • Supplies of soap, jerry cans and hygiene dignity kits were sent to Kereneik for distribution.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Flash 01 WD Kereneik Ag Geneina conflict 25Apr22

Flash Update: Kereneik & Ag Geneina Inter-communal Conflict, No. 03 (2 May 2022)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • A calm but tense situation has prevailed over the past five days in Kereneik town, West Darfur, with no reports of inter-communal fighting.

  • The humanitarian situation in Kereneik remains a major concern, due to the insecurity, destruction and disruption of basic services, including stabilization and health centres, lack of major relief items, according to preliminary findings of an NGO multi-sector mission.

  • The priority needs of the affected/displaced people are access to safe water, food, shelter/NFIs, and health services/medicines.

  • It is estimated that 85,000 – 115,000 people are displaced due to the violence. However, the numbers are yet to be verified.

  • Humanitarians have provided initial assistance to cover the health needs of at least 10,000 people for three months in Kereneik. More people will be provided with assistance in the coming days.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

The situation in Kereneik, West Darfur, remains a major concern, with a lack of major relief items, according to preliminary findings of an NGO multi-sectoral mission that visited Kereneik on 30 April. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) coordinated and facilitated the overall mission, including Civil-Military Coordination (CMCoord). OCHA also engaged the West Darfur State government in Ag Geneina, local authorities, community leaders in Kereneik town, and the nomads east of the town to ensure support for the mission.

The mission was comprised of international and national NGOs, and focused on the plight of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Kereneik town. The sectors represented on the mission included health; nutrition; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); education; food; protection; child protection; shelter and non-food items (S/NFIs).

The mission had specific objectives to carry out an initial rapid response to identify the critical lifesaving needs of the vulnerable IDP families, including the verification and registration of caseloads, distribution of assistance and rehabilitation of water sources inside Kereneik town. The mission also aimed to assess the most urgent needs of the displaced families to determine the multi-sector crisis emergency response in Kereneik town. Meanwhile, the mission also focused on assessing the rehabilitation needs due to looting of, and damage caused to NGO offices and guesthouses to re-establish and scale up operational presence in Kereneik town.

Key mission findings

In terms of the security, a calm situation has prevailed over the past five days in Kereneik town, while there are no additional checkpoints between Ag Geneina and Kereneik town. However, outside the Kereneik town only members of Arab tribes can move freely, creating concerns for access to services and relief for the communities in Kereineik.

All commercial movement in the area, including small passenger vehicles, is with military escort due to insecurity attributed to the presence of armed people dominating major roads out of Kereneik town. In the meantime, the government deployed civilian protection forces last week, with plans to deploy more forces to Kereneik locality.

The mission reports that 10 vehicles were stolen by the attackers, including one from an international NGO, the hospital ambulance, a police vehicle, and the rest from the community. Another five vehicles were burnt. The Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) in Kereneik locality reported that one of the burnt vehicles belonged to the police, which has since been replaced.

The humanitarian situation is characterized by these priority needs in order of urgency: access to safe water, food, S/NFIs, health services and medicines. In addition, the affected/displaced people do not have cooking sets and need clothes as they lost all their possessions during the attacks. Most of the IDPs are residing near the military camp in Kereneik for protection. Men spend nights under trees and in the open courtyard at the mosque, while women, children and animals spend nights in shared tarpaulins or makeshift shelters in the gathering sites. Local authorities are working directly with individual sheikhs to register the displaced families to provide the number of the IDPs, disaggregated by gathering sites.

It is estimated that 85,000 – 115,000 people are displaced due to the violence. However, the numbers are subject to verification. An international NGO reported that more people arrived in Kereneik town during the time of the mission.

At least 16 villages around Kereneik town were attacked and the residents of the villages were displaced to Kereneik town, to Murayat and Umtajok villages. The 16 villages are Salame, Donghe, Sehebat, Moling, Murayat, Shutak, Kamkak, Shogo, Gadir, Ardeba, Goza, Nyooro, Shawaya, Naema, Sarf Jidad and Gaduri. HAC in Kereneik reported that the villages of Salame, Sihebat, Um Rikena, and Shutak were totally looted, burnt and all the residents displaced.

Several humanitarian volunteers and personnel were reported killed, including a State Ministry of Health (SMoH) medical assistant assigned to the Galala clinic (nomad area) and four volunteer personnel of a national NGO and member of the S/NFIs sector. Several humanitarian facilities including the nutrition center, the hospital, water sources, and the guesthouse of an international NGO were reportedly looted.

The market in Kereneik town is operating with a few vegetable traders while shops remain closed as many were looted and burnt.

Humanitarian agencies have delivered a basic health care kit to Kereneik hospital, which can cover the health needs of at least 10,000 people for three months. In addition, shelter and non-food supplies for 5,000 people were dispatched and will be distributed on 1 May. Transportation of more Non-food items, WASH and Child Friendly supplies is underway for immediate distribution.

SECTOR UPDATES

Food and Livelihoods (FSL)

  • Families have lost their food stocks and sources of income (labour wages from working on farms, domestic work or in the market).

  • Prices of basic commodities such as sorghum, sugar, millet, and oil have soared, and people have no cash or disposable income.

  • A 10-day old baby died on 29 April as the mother had not eaten in five days and had stopped producing milk. Many IDPs have not eaten anything but green mangoes and sour gum for the past five days as all their food stocks were looted and/or burnt.

Health and Nutrition

  • The Kereneik hospital is currently the only health facility providing basic services to a population of more than 20,000 families.

  • Many respiratory infections and malaria cases have been reported. The laboratory in Kereneik hospital has been damaged and looted and there is no fuel to run the hospital generator.

  • All equipment and nutrition supplies in the hospital were looted.

  • There is a lack of children’s medicines needed for small operations as supplies received are for more serious surgical procedures.

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

  • An estimated 90 per cent of the IDPs are drinking water from unprotected sources.

  • Only one out of eight water yards in the town are working.

  • Five water yards could function if fuel is provided.

  • The IDPs have no water containers.

  • Open defecation is rampant as all the latrines were damaged.

  • There is urgent need for WASH and NFI assistance.

SECTOR RESPONSE

Food and Livelihoods (FSL)

  • Dispatch of food and distribution is planned for 3 May.

Health and Nutrition

  • A basic health kit was delivered to the Kereneik hospital on 29 April to support surgical operations. Minimal nutrition supplies, including RUTF delivered to Kreneik to facilitate re-establishing the provision of nutrition services with the SFP/OTP staff on the ground

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

  • 3 out of 4 damaged handpumps were repaired during the mission.

  • Dispatch of assorted WASH supplies on 1 May for immediate distribution, including 500 cartons of soap, 500 hygiene dignity kits, 100 plastic slabs, 600 pcs of fixable water storage jerricans (10 l) and 650pcs of dignity kits.

  • Child protection: Dispatch of assorted supplies today:

# Item’s description QTY

1 Sleeping mats 75 bundles

2 plastic sheet 75 PCs

3 Big mats 40 PCs

4 Blankets 40 bundles

Shelter and Non-Food Items (S/NFIs)

  • 1,000 S/NFI kits for 100 families were dispatched from Ag Geneina on 30 April to be distributed on 1 May. Sudanese Organisation for Relief and Recovery (SORR) teams are on the ground for the verification, registration, and distribution.

  • 700 hygiene kits and 1,000 NFI kits from the common pipeline to be dispatched to Kereneik on 1 May for immediate distribution. Humanitarian teams are on the ground for the caseload identification, registration and distribution of humanitarian assistance.

  • Dispatch of assorted NFI supplies on 1 May for immediate distribution:

# Item’s description QTY

1 Plastic Sheet 2,000

2 Solar Lamp 1,000

3 Sleeping Mats 3,000

4 Blankets 3,000

5 Jerry cans 2,000 6 Mosquito net 2,000

Background

Inter-communal conflict between Arab nomads and the Masalit tribe in Kereneik locality started on 4 December 2021 over a property dispute at a local market. Over 61,000 people were affected and took refuge in Kereneik town and surrounding villages. At least 67 people were killed, 78 were injured and many lost their possessions and livestock. (Source, IOM DTM). As of 14 February, 36,700 IDPs remained in Kereneik town and surrounding villages, the rest having returned to their home areas. (Source, IOM DTM).

An estimated 487,000 people live in Kereneik locality, including 146,700 displaced people, according to the 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). Some 265,700 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 73,000 people in Kereneik were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

An estimated 646,000 people live in Ag Geneina locality, including 126,700 displaced people, according to IOM 2021 mobility tracking. Some 371,500 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 129,100 people in Ag Geneina were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
West Darfur location map 25 April 2022

Flash Update: Kereneik & Ag Geneina Inter-communal Conflict, No. 02 (28 Apr 2022)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Heavy fighting has ceased but the situation in Ag Geneina town remains unpredictable since 26 April.

  • The rural hospital in Kereneik is closed and injured people are being sent to Ag Geneina hospital for treatment.

  • Humanitarians call on the parties to the conflict to protect civilians.

  • There are concerning reports of looted humanitarian facilities. Humanitarians call on all to protect humanitarian facilities and objects.

  • Humanitarians are ready to assist those in need as soon as the security situation permits.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

The situation in Ag Geneina town has quieted but remains unpredictable following fighting that started on 22 April. Gunfire was heard between 26 and 27 April and again in the evening of 27 April. The situation in Kereneik is reportedly calm. Initial reports by local authorities in Kereneik indicate that between 150 and 213 people were killed and about 100 injured. Casualty numbers of people killed and injured in Ag Geneina are not yet available.

The rural hospital in Kereneik has reportedly been looted and is closed. Many of the injured are being sent to Ag Geneina hospital for treatment. In Ag Geneina, shops and markets are partially open, with traders seemingly going on with their business since 25 April. People and vehicles are moving in Ag Geneina town and children have been seen going to school. Displaced women have started returning to the gathering sites in Ag Geneina as of 26 April. Road blockades are still in place. There are some commercial vehicles on the road between Ag Geneina and Zalingei today. There is an enhanced Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) presence throughout Ag Geneina and there are reports of groups of armed men deploying to and around the city. Staff are working from home since 25 April, however, some critical staff were able to access their offices on 27 April.

A Government delegation consisting of the Transitional Sovereignty Council member Dr. Abdul Baqi Abdul Qadir Al-Zabir, Mr Yassin Ibrahim Yassin, Minister of Defense and Dr. Haitham Mohamed Ibrahim, Minister of Health arrived from Khartoum to Ag Geneina on 27 April.

Flights to Ag Geneina have resumed. Commercial flights resumed and United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) is planning a flight scheduled for 29 April and UNITAMS have one flight scheduled for 30 April. While there are roadblocks between the airport and Ag Geneina, the road is passable.

Several humanitarian facilities have reportedly been looted in Kereneik. An inter-agency mission to Kereneik is planned as soon as the security situation allows. The objective of the mission is mainly to conduct a security assessment to enable humanitarian distributions, understand initial needs, and to deliver initial health supplies.

Humanitarian agencies call on the parties to the conflict to ensure the protection of civilians; the protection of humanitarian staff and assets; and to allow humanitarian access to those in need of assistance.

SECTOR UPDATES

Health and Nutrition Sectors

  • There are enough stocks available to start response. There are more supplies available in Zalingei.

  • The resumption of the mobile clinic in Galala, Kereneik locality, is delayed as partners seek ways to support the nomadic community. The Medical Assistant of the clinic was killed in the fighting on 22 and 23 April.

  • 10 cartons of Plumpy-nut will be delivered with the rapid assessment mission. State Ministry of Health staff are available to resume nutrition services.

Shelter and Non-Food Items Sector

  • There are over 6,000 non-food item kits (NFIs) available, with an additional 7,000 kits available if needed.

  • There are 700 tents, and 700 kitchen sets available for distribution.

  • There is also the possibility of implementing cash-based interventions.

Protection Sector

  • There are 7,000 gender-based violence dignity kits in Nyala (South Darfur) ready to be sent to the affected localities.

Food and Livelihoods Sector

  • The release of food for more than 26,000 people has been approved.

Background

Inter-communal conflict between Arab nomads and the Masalit tribe in Kereneik locality started on 4 December 2021 over a property dispute at a local market. Over 61,000 people were affected and took refuge in Kereneik town and surrounding villages. At least 67 people were killed, 78 were injured and many lost their possessions and livestock. (Source, IOM DTM). As of 14 February, 36,700 IDPs remained in Kereneik town and surrounding villages, the rest having returned to their home areas. (Source, IOM DTM).

An estimated 487,000 people live in Kereneik locality, including 146,700 displaced people, according to the 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). Some 265,700 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 73,000 people in Kereneik were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

An estimated 646,000 people live in Ag Geneina locality, including 126,700 displaced people, according to IOM 2021 mobility tracking. Some 371,500 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 129,100 people in Ag Geneina were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
WD Kereneik Ag Geneina conflict 25Apr22

Flash Update: Kereneik & Ag Geneina Inter-communal Conflict, No. 01 (25 April 2022)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Since 22 April, an unverified number of people were reportedly killed and injured in Kereneik locality and Ag Geneina following inter-communal clashes.

  • Curfew in Ag Geneina market from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am the next morning.

  • WFP food distributions scheduled for this week have been suspended affecting an estimated 62,850 IDPs in Kereneik town and nearby villages of Murayat and Umtajok.

  • Humanitarian organisations are ready to provide life-saving assistance as soon as the security situation allows.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Since 22 April, armed clashes between Arab and Masalit communities in Kereneik locality, which were triggered by the reported killing of two Arabs in Kereneik town by unknown people, have resulted in an unverified number of people killed and injured.

Kereneik locality

According to local sources in Kereneik town, the police station was burned, the Kereneik rural hospital was attacked and is out of commission; the market has been looted and burned; and the locality office has been looted. Information available indicates that nearby villages have also been attacked. Calls from the West Darfur state security committee to stop the attacks and violence have not been heeded.

People from Umdwain village have reportedly been displaced to Kereneik town; the scale of displacement is not yet known. Many injured are in urgent need of health services.

As of 25 April, there are unverified reports of thousands of people displaced from Kereneik. Humanitarian organisations will verify the number of people displaced and assess their immediate needs for the response as soon as the security situation allows.

As a result of the fighting and insecurity, WFP food distributions scheduled this week will be suspended affecting an estimated 56,390 people in Kereneik town and 6,460 people in the nearby villages of Murayat and Umtajok.

Ag Geneina locality

Starting from 24 April, the local authorities in Ag Geneina have imposed a curfew at Ag Geneina market from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am the next day. The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) deployed a battalion from Nyala, South Darfur to Ag Geneina. Aid agencies have been advised by the State Humanitarian Affairs Commissioner to keep a low profile and minimise any movements.

Reports indicate that the injured are being sent to Al Naseem hospital in Ag Geneina and the Ag Geneina referral hospital for treatment. However, Al Naseem hospital does not have the capacity to treat injuries and trauma cases. Partners report that people from Althawra and Buhaira areas and IDPs from the Qadima school gathering site have displaced towards the northern part of the town, and people are also fleeing El Jebel Area to the gathering sites in Ag Geneina.

Humanitarian agencies are calling for injured civilians to have access to health services, protection of civilians and humanitarian assets (health facilities, water points, etc). Humanitarian organisations are also asking for humanitarian access so that civilians can seek humanitarian assistance, with humanitarian organisations able to reach affected civilians and provide assistance.

Background

Inter-communal conflict between Arab nomads and the Masalit tribe in Kereneik locality started on 4 December 2021 over a property dispute at a local market. Over 61,000 people took refuge in Kereneik town and surrounding villages. At least 67 people were killed, 78 were injured and many lost their possessions and livestock. (Source, IOM DTM). As of 14 February, 36,700 IDPs remained in Kereneik town and surrounding villages, the rest returned to their home areas. (Source, IOM DTM).

An estimated 487,000 people live in Kereneik locality, including 146,700 displaced people, according to the 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). Some 265,700 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 73,000 people in Kereneik were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

An estimated 646,000 people live in Ag Geneina locality, including 126,700 displaced people, according to IOM 2021 mobility tracking. Some 371,500 people in the state need humanitarian assistance in 2022 (HNO). Over 129,100 people in Ag Geneina were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

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Situation Report
Analysis
01 SDN Localities-Expriencing-Dry-Spell---20220214 A4

Sudan Humanitarian Update, February 2022

HIGHLIGHTS

  • More than 18 million people are likely to be affected by localized dry spells and crop failure, conflict and the economic crisis and need urgent humanitarian assistance.

  • The total production of main cereal crops (sorghum, millet and wheat) in 2021/22 is estimated at 5 million tonnes. This is 30 per cent lower than the previous five-year average and 35 per cent below last year’s production (FAO).

  • There has been an increase in the number of requests issued by some state authorities for incentives and fees to be paid by humanitarian organizations.

  • Insecurity affecting access to affected people in some parts of Darfur.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Sudan continues to face a macroeconomic crisis. Continued increases in the prices of food and transportation and the local food basket are expected to continue impacting the purchasing power of poor households and likely drive an increase in the inflation rate, according to FEWS NET. The political crisis during the reporting period severely impacted the Sudanese economy, with challenges in exports and imports, blockades of national routes and deteriorating conditions disrupting market systems and food value chains. These factors continued to have a negative impact on people in need in February.

According to the World Food Programme (WFP) Consolidated Approach to Reporting Indicators of Food Security (CARI), the forecasted scenario indicates that 33 per cent of the general population are food insecure during the first quarter of 2022, and 39 per cent will be food insecure by the third quarter. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the performance of the 2021/22 agricultural season is poor. FAO estimate that 5.6 million people are affected by the dry spells in addition to the 9.8 million people that are food insecure due to the current economic crisis, as well as fuel and price hikes. In most states, the rain level in the current season is below the level of the previous season with long dry spells expected in July in all cropping areas, with localized dry spells in August and September negatively affecting crop growth. The dry spell and the subsequent crop failure have affected over 5.6 million people in Blue Nile, Central Darfur, East Darfur, Gedaref, Kassala, North Darfur, North Kordofan, Red Sea, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, and White Nile. More than 22 million people (50 per cent of Sudan’s population) live in the 115 dry spell-affected localities.

During the month, there have been reports of the return of Sudanese refugees from Ethiopia to Al Kurmuk, Blue Nile, following military advancements into the Tongo refugee camp in Ethiopia. Since the beginning of February, an estimated 739 Sudanese nationals have reportedly returned to Sudan through different entry points in Al Kurmuk locality. The official border crossing remains closed. A joint team from the Humanitarian Affairs Commission (HAC), Commissioner for Refugees (COR) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) went to Al Kurmuk to register the returnees. While UNHCR teams go on mission, COR has had staff on the ground registering the returnees since mid-February. Al Kurmuk has an endemic water problem, and as more returnees arrive the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs must be addressed by humanitarian partners. UNHCR has built two temporary toilets at the transit centre, but more are needed. The water supply also needs to be improved to be able to supply increasing demands.

In 2022, humanitarian partners aim to provide humanitarian assistance and support to 10.9 million of the most vulnerable people at the cost of US$1.9 billion. As of 10 March, thanks to several donor partners, the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) received $148.6 million, which is 7.6 per cent of the requirement.

Humanitarian organizations in Sudan advocate for early and expedient funding for humanitarian operations as conflict, the economic crisis, inflation, food insecurity and other challenges increase the needs of vulnerable people.

In this regard, the European Commission (EC) on 20 February announced the allocation of €40 million (US$45.46 million) for humanitarian assistance to Sudan as part of the €294.2 million ($334.36 million) humanitarian funding to assist vulnerable populations in East and Southern Africa in 2022.

Dry spells and crop failure puts further strain on people in need

The combined effects of conflict, economic crisis, and poor harvests are significantly affecting people’s access to food and will likely double the number of people facing acute hunger in Sudan to more than 18 million people by September 2022, according to FAO and WFP (statement). According to a joint rapid needs assessment by the FAO and the respective state governments carried out in December 2021, Kassala, Red Sea and North Darfur are amongst the most affected states, while North Kordofan, Central Darfur, Blue Nile, South Kordofan and South Darfur have also been affected by dry spells. The crop failure is due to erratic and lower rainfalls last year, high agricultural input and production costs and sub-national violence preventing farmers from farming their lands and exacerbates the already precarious food security situation of vulnerable people. This is further compounded by the impact of the economic crisis, high inflation and diminishing purchasing power of people in Sudan.

According to the FAO, the total production of main cereal crops (sorghum, millet and wheat) in 2021/22 is estimated at 5 million tonnes. This is 30 per cent lower than the previous five-year average and 35 per cent below last year’s production. The sorghum supply shortage estimated to be 1.3 million metric tonnes is the highest in Sudan since the 1980s. The available 3.5 million tons of sorghum from last season’s harvest will cover the needs for people’s food and livestock feed for 10 months. The projected wheat production is estimated at 584,600 tons and would cover two and half months of Sudan’s wheat requirement. The estimated deficit of cereals (sorghum, wheat, millet) for the country is 4.3 million tons. By mid-January 2022, staple food prices continued increasing atypically in most markets, while remaining stable or slightly decreasing in other markets. Staple food prices are between 100-200 per cent higher than last year and three to four times greater than the five-year average. Cereal prices typically stabilize by February following the completion of the harvest, but are likely to begin increasing in April-earlier than normal.

FAO and state governments in the affected states indicate that there is an urgent need to provide food assistance until next growing season. In addition to rehabilitating existing natural ponds and hafirs, the assessment recommends providing water storage containers where needed. Preparation for the coming rainy season by providing farming inputs and tools using resilient responding practices (types of crops, water harvesting, proper storage if there is surplus, etc.) is essential. Provision of animal feed, like crop residues of sorghum and groundnut from surrounding areas to minimize the animal feed gap, is also recommended. Humanitarian partners will use a multisectoral approach to respond to this crisis to ensure that people receive the assistance they need and that the new caseload is incorporated in their programming for the year. Short to medium-term emergency life-saving assistance will be provided to prevent further deterioration of the humanitarian situation. Food, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and the protection sector will provide life-saving assistance in the 115 affected localities. Provision of food assistance, access to water for domestic use and livestock, nutrition services for under-five children, pregnant and lactating women, and access to protection services will be prioritized in the short-term. Humanitarian partners will also provide medium-term assistance to prevent further deterioration of the humanitarian situation. This includes the provision of agricultural inputs, provision of veterinary services, preventative nutritional assistance, strengthening nutrition surveillance, and rehabilitation of WASH facilities.

On 31 January, the WFP in Sudan said that one in four people in Sudan are facing acute hunger. According to the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) released on May 2021, about 6 million people across Sudan are estimated to be food insecure between October 2021 and February 2022. The next IPC assessment will be done in May 2022. The impact of the dry spells is likely to see an increase in the number of food-insecure people.

Bureaucratic procedures for INGOs and the UN are increasing

Following the military coup in October 2021, there has been an increase in the number of requests issued by some state authorities for incentives and fees to be paid by humanitarian organizations. This has been witnessed in Blue Nile, Central Darfur, Gedaref, North Darfur, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Kordofan and White Nile states. Requests range from an increase in existing incentives to fees for new services. These new requests will increase operational costs for humanitarian partners and add to bureaucratic and administrative impediments.

There has been a shift in some states from a requirement from HAC clearance, in line with the October 2019 agreement to multiple stamps from Military Intelligence and General Intelligence Services. This is occurring in Central Darfur, Red Sea, Kassala, West Kordofan and South Kordofan.

Access concerns in Darfur

Tensions and conflicts continue to be reported among various communities in parts of Darfur, however, no civilian displacement was reported in February 2022. The number of security incidents increased, with 27 incidents reported in February compared to 21 in January, according to UNDSS.

In February, humanitarian organizations were unable to access communities in some parts of West and Central Darfur due to insecurity. In West Darfur, some of the people displaced due to conflict in 2021 have yet to receive humanitarian assistance due to continuing conflict.

Despite challenges, humanitarian organizations were able to reach 5.6 million people in Darfur in 2021 with some form of humanitarian assistance.

COVID-19 cases decline

The number of confirmed COVID-19 cases across the country seems to be on the decline with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) confirming 3,250 COVID-19 cases in February compared to 11,383 cases in January. Overall, 61,569 people across the country tested positive for COVID-19, including 3,912 deaths between 3 January 2020 and 4 March 2022.

Sudan’s COVID-19 vaccination target is 20 per cent of the population by June 2022 and 52 per cent by the end of 2022. As of 24 March, a total of 6.13 million COVID-19 vaccines have been administrated across the country bringing the percentage of people fully vaccinated to 5.8 per cent.

Sudan joined the COVAX facility in December 2020 and received the first shipment of AstraZeneca vaccine on 3 March 2021. Since then, vaccines have continued to arrive in the country. On 16 February, a shipment of 604,800 doses of Johnson & Johnson vaccines donated by the Spanish Government arrived in Khartoum. On 11 February, the United States dispatched 774,540 doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine.

2022 Sudan Refugee Response Plan to assist over one million refugees and people from host communities

On 21 February, UNHCR and partners issued the 2022 Sudan Country Refugee Response Plan (here) targeting 925,000 refugees and benefitting 231,235 people from host communities at a cost of $517 million. Over 1.2 million refugees are expected to be in Sudan by the end of 2022. Refugees will need multi-sectoral interventions to address their needs and to improve self-reliance over the long-term. Investments in local infrastructure and strengthening of gender-sensitive education, health, nutrition and WASH services are also needed to ensure that local services have the capacity to serve the increasing needs of refugees and host communities. This will allow both communities to coexist peacefully.

Sudan is the second largest asylum country in Africa. The country hosts refugees and asylum-seekers mostly from South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Central African Republic (CAR), Chad, Syria, Yemen and other countries such as Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The largest refugee populations in the country are South Sudanese and Ethiopian refugees. Sudan is one of the main hosting countries for South Sudanese refugees with over 800,000 refugees in the country, of whom 3,500 arrived in January 2022. In addition, Sudan hosts over 73,300 Ethiopian refugees across the country, of whom 51,000 refugees arrived in eastern Sudan (Kassala and Gedaref) and Blue Nile State since November 2020 following violence in the Tigray region.

Approximately 70 per cent of Sudan’s refugee population live outside of camps, with local communities which are hosting refugees on their land in towns and villages. This includes refugees in urban areas and more than 100 settlements across the country. Many out-of-camp settlements are in remote and underdeveloped areas, where resources, infrastructure and basic services are very limited.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response
01 IA mission carrying supplies going to Gereida SD
Inter-agency assessment mission to Gereida carrying supplies to be distributed to those affected by the inter-communal conflict (Credit: OCHA)

Flash Update: Gereida & Tulus (South Darfur) Inter-communal Conflict, No. 01 (6 April 2022)

Highlights

  • Hundreds displaced due to inter-communal fighting between two nomadic tribes in South Darfur’s Gereida and Tulus localities.

  • People are taking refuge near a military base close to Gereida town.

  • At least three villages were burned during the fighting.

  • To control the escalating situation, state authorities deployed security forces to the conflict areas to create a buffer between the two tribes.

  • An inter-agency assessment mission took place on 6 April and preliminary humanitarian supplies will be distributed to the affected people in the Dika area.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Since 26 March, there have been reports of clashes between two nomadic tribes in Gereida and Tulus localities of South Darfur State. Fighting has subsided; however, the situation remains fluid.

Heavy fighting has been reported in Hadoub, Dagama, Idan, Umm Bulula, Hashaba, Sanam El Naga, Abu Jabra and Farfur villages in Gereida locality; and Shergeila, Abu Humeira, and Assafaya villages in Tulus locality. The clashes reportedly stem from an incident on 26 March when a Rapid Support Forces (RSF) soldier from one of the nomadic tribes was killed by unknown perpetrators while traveling from Gereida town to Buram village. The nomadic tribe blamed the other nomadic tribe of the killing, and mobilized forces to attack the tribe’s villages.

On 29 March, an armed nomadic tribe attacked the three nomadic tribe villages of Hashaba, Idan, and Umm Bulula located southwest of Gereida town. More than 20 combatants from both tribes were reportedly killed during the conflict.

On 30 March, the villages of Sanam El Naga, Abu Jabra and Hadoub in Gereida locality were burned, according to the International Organization or Migration (IOM) Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM). The Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) reported that the inhabitants of Hadoub village, about 500 people (100 families) took their livestock and sought protection near a Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) military base in the Dika area on the outskirts of Gereida town. Most of them are women and children, who are living out in the open and need shelter, food, as well as water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) assistance. HAC also reported that on 31 March Dika and Dagama villages were attacked; Dika was burned according to IOM DTM. Inhabitants of Dika village also took refuge close to the military base near Gereida town. HAC and an NGO have registered about 1,760 people (352 families) displaced in the Dika area. The displaced are reportedly under the protection of joint SAF and Police forces. The people displaced from Dika village had initially intended to move to Tulus and Nyala town. However, community elders prevailed on them to stay to maintain their presence on the land which they currently occupy.

To control the escalating situation, state authorities deployed joint security forces in 20 pickup vehicles to the conflict areas to create a buffer between the two tribes. The Governors of South and East Darfur travelled to Gereida with more forces, to contain the situation.

It is estimated that over 100 people have been killed since 29 March, of whom six are reportedly children while two children are missing. Humanitarian partners estimate that around 15,000 people (3,000 families) will likely be affected by the conflict, with displacement to Tulus and Shergeila localities, and camps in Nyala anticipated. The Governor of South Darfur has asked partners to respond to the needs of those displaced by the conflict.

Response

An inter-agency assessment to Gereida was carried out on 6 April. Preliminary humanitarian supplies such as non-food items (NFIs), food and dignity kits will be distributed to the affected people in the Dika area. A partner will register the people affected while the preliminary distributions are taking place. Government security personnel in the area are currently providing the displaced people with water from nearby wells. Another partner will initially provide water bladders, chlorine, and soap, while an in-depth assessment will be carried out soon. Following the findings of the inter-agency assessment mission, yet another partner will provide food assistance if required.

A partner is currently providing emergency health services to the people displaced in the Dika area and have treated nine pregnant women and children and have referred some patients to Nyala. Another partner has provided one medical kit to the Nyala teaching hospital to treat injured cases referred from Gereida. Dignity kits will provide information on gender-based violence (GBV) to affected people and will investigate any GBV cases.

Currently, 850 NFI kits are available for immediate distribution by partners.

Background

An estimated 175,000 people live in Gereida locality, and more than 187,000 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). About 35,000 people Gereida were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

An estimated 314,000 people live in Tulus locality, about 65,000 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 HNO. About 31,400 people in Tulus were in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

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For more information, please contact:

Sofie Karlsson, Head of Communications and Analysis, OCHA Sudan, karlsson2@un.org, Mob: +249 (0)912 174 456

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Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Flash 03 2022-03-14 161813

Flash Update: Jebel Moon (West Darfur) Inter-communal Conflict, No. 03 (14 March 2022)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Renewed conflict in West Darfur's Jebel Moon locality reported as of 5 March.

  • Over 12,500 people displaced into neighbouring localities, the Jebel Moon mountains and Chad following fighting between nomads and farmers in the Jebel Moon locality on 10 March 2022.

  • According to reports at least 17 people from the Misseriya Jebel and security forces have reportedly been killed and others injured on 10 March.

  • Initial reports indicate that three villages in Jebel Moon were completely burnt while six were partially burned.

  • The conflict in Jebel Moon is also affecting Sirba and Kulbus localities as cases of killing, looting and displacement were reported.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Renewed conflict in the Jebel Moon locality of West Darfur State between Arab nomads and Misseriya Jebel tribe was reported starting on 5 March. These clashes are a continuation of a major conflict that erupted in mid-November 2021 over land dispute and claimed dozens of lives, loss of property and caused displacement. The situation remains tense.

On 5 March, a group of armed nomads attacked Kharrouba and Jammeina villages (approx. 6 km south of Selea town) in Jebel Moon locality and stole livestock. In response, armed Misseriya Jabal tribesmen clashed with the perpetrators and 12 Misseriya Jabal men were killed, and seven others injured. On 7 March there was an attack on Selea town (the capital of Jabal Moon locality) from three directions (East, South and West). The attack which lasted for approximately three hours, ended when Misseriya Jabal fighters arrived from Jabal Moon to support their people in Selea. Two civilians from the Misseriya Jabal were killed in the attack and two persons were injured and two houses burned in Selea town.

On 10 March, a group of armed nomads on at least 14 vehicles, horsebacks and motorbikes attacked Bardei, Kafaji, Ara, Ghibeish, Hijlieja, Manjura, Kishkish, Fareed North and Simeima villages in Jebel Moon locality. According to reports received, 15 people from the Misseriya Jebel and two soldiers from the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) – who exchanged fire with the perpetrators – were killed. An unknown number of nomads were also reportedly killed. The situation remains volatile as nomads have yet to collect their dead. Initial reports indicate that Bardei, Kafaji and Agra villages have been completely burned while Ghibeish, Hijlieja, Manjura, Kishkish, Fareed North and Simeima villages have been partially burned.

Locals estimate that about 12,500 people have been affected by the recent conflict. This includes the displacement of 2,000 people to Selea; 1,250 people into the Jebel Moon mountains; 3,000 people to Abu Lijam village, and an unknown number have crossed the border into neighbouring Chad. The area remains inaccessible to humanitarians due to the continuing conflict.

The conflict in Jebel Moon is also affecting Sirba and Kulbus localities. Community leaders from Sirba, the government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) Commissioner of Sirba and representatives of Sirba youth report that the conflict in Jebel Moon and Kereneik localities is also affecting their localities, as armed nomads pass through the area to join the fighting or return from it. Daily security incidents are being reported including killing, looting and displacement of people fleeing insecurity. These displacements include about 500 people from Abu Grain and Kimdor villages (Sirba locality) and from Jiljilak, Dibis and Urdi villages (Jebel Moon locality) to Sirba town following the 10 March attack. About 300 people have taken refuge in government buildings while 200 are being hosted by families in Sirba town. Humanitarian organisations have not yet been able to access the areas due to security concerns. An inter-agency assessment will be conducted as soon as the situation permits.

Background

An estimated 68,500 people live in Jebel Moon locality, and more than 46,600 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). Over 6,800 people in Jebel Moon are in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report.

An estimated 196,000 people live in Sirba locality, and more than 56,000 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 HNO. About 29,400 people in Sirba are in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

An estimated 50,000 people live in Kulbus locality, and more than 15,000 are people in need of humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 HNO. About 5,000 people in Kulbus are in crisis and above levels of food security between October 2021 and February 2022, according to IPC.

For previous flash updates:

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For more information, please contact: Sofie Karlsson, Head of Communications and Analysis, OCHA Sudan, karlsson2@un.org, Mob: +249 (0)912 174 456

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis

SUDAN: Humanitarian Key Messages (April 2022)

KEY MESSAGES

  1. More than 18 million people are likely to face acute food insecurity by September 2022 because of the combined effects of conflict, economic crisis, and poor harvests according to WFP and FAO. That is double the number of people who were food insecure in 2021 as a result of inter-communal clashes, the below-average harvest of the main agricultural season, significantly above-average cereal and non-cereal food prices and continued macroeconomic difficulties. Children and women constitute three-quarters of the affected people and are further exposed to additional protection risks including increased risks of violence, abuse, neglect, and exploitation.

  2. Humanitarian partners will use a multisectoral approach to respond to this crisis to ensure that people receive the assistance they need and that the new caseload is incorporated in this year’s programming. The most urgent priority is to address the most crucial lifesaving needs while saving the next agricultural seasons - including agricultural inputs and veterinary services. Funds are needed by May 2022 for this to happen. To support the most vulnerable people, food assistance, access to water for domestic use and livestock, nutrition services for under-five children, pregnant and lactating women, and protection services will be needed. Crop protection committees need to be functional to ensure that farmers can access their land and their crops are protected throughout the growing season.

  3. The failing economy, prolonged dry spells, reduced area cultivated and erratic rainfall in 2021 worsen existing humanitarian needs. The food security situation in affected localities could deteriorate further. More than 2.8 million under-five and pregnant and lactating women are exposed to additional nutritional and health risks. Access to livestock products such as milk is reduced by 50 per cent. Access to livestock food is also significantly impacted, leading to increased acute malnutrition and associated morbidity and mortality. Neglect and abandonment of younger children is likely to increase. Humanitarian organisations have noticed an increased number of children begging in urban centres.

  4. Crop and livestock production has reduced by up to 50 per cent in 14 states across Sudan. Diseases, pest infestation, high prices of agricultural inputs, grasshoppers, desert locusts, birds, disease infestation, and insecurity, especially in the Darfurs and Kordofan, also impacted crop production. The Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission (CFSAM) report by FAO and WFP estimates that the domestic cereal production from the 2021/22 agricultural season is expected to produce 5.1 million metric tons. This is 35 per cent below the previous year and 30 per cent below the last five-year average. The production will cover the needs of less than two-thirds of the population, leaving many reliant on humanitarian food assistance.

  5. The situation is further aggravated by the conflict in Ukraine which is causing further spikes in food costs. Sudan is dependent on wheat imports from the Black Sea region. Interruption to the flow of grain into Sudan will increase prices and make it more difficult to import wheat. Currently, local prices of wheat are at over US$ 550 per ton – an increase of 180 per cent compared to the same period in 2021.

  6. People in dry spell-affected areas need lifesaving protection assistance. According to the 2022 Sudan HRP, over 2.8 million children need child protection assistance, and 2.5 million people face protection risks in the affected localities. An additional 2.5 million people will be exposed to gender-based violence. Extended dry spells will force the families to adopt negative survival strategies such as child labour and child migration which will result in the increased psychosocial distress of children and caregivers, increased family separation, forced/early marriages and increased risks of sexual violence. Men and boys are at higher risk of being killed or forcibly recruited leaving behind a high number of female-headed households.

  7. The prolonged dry spell and subsequent crop failure increase the risk of conflict due to the early migration of pastoral communities. About half of dry spell-affected localities are already affected by multiple crises, and the prolonged dry spells will further exacerbate the risk of conflict and violence. Dry spells impacted fodder and water availability for livestock, forcing pastoral communities to migrate earlier than usual. The early migration of pastoral communities in some parts of Darfur placed additional pressure on limited water and fodder availability in some areas that contributed to intercommunal violence. Crop protection committees need to be functional. During migration, women and children face greater risks as people often use dangerous routes to cover their basic needs. Greater potential risks concern the separation of children from their caregivers and child trafficking. Relevant precarious living conditions puts women and children in greater risk of violence including, rape, harassment, sexual exploitation and abuse, and child marriage.

  8. Conflict, the economic crisis, food insecurity, flooding, and disease outbreaks continue to be the main drivers of humanitarian needs in Sudan. 14.3 million people need humanitarian assistance, according to the 2022 Sudan Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). This includes 9.3 million vulnerable residents, 2.9 million IDPs, 1.16 million refugees, and 940,000 returnees. The majority of people in need are women and girls - 8.2 million or 57 per cent, while more than half of people in need are children (7.8 million or 55 per cent). Humanitarian partners plan to reach 9.1 million people with lifesaving and 10.7 million people with life-sustaining support in 68 localities. With 18 million people likely to face acute hunger by September, the originally estimated number of 14.3 million people in need is likely to also increase.

  9. Humanitarian partners have appealed for more than US$1.9 billion to provide assistance and protection to 14.3 million people in Sudan in 2022. Out of this, $806 million is required for lifesaving activities. We urgently call on donors to fund this appeal.

[Updated in April 2022]

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