Sudan

Situation Report
Flash Update
Floods affected-locality-2021 No 14

SUDAN: Floods Flash Update No. 14 (23 September 2021)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Heavy rains and flooding have affected over 303,000 people in 14 states across the country since the start of the rainy season in July.

  • Over 14,800 houses were destroyed and 45,300 houses were damaged due to the heavy rains and flooding.

  • Close to 183,000 people were reached with various types of humanitarian assistance in 14 flood-affected states, including food, shelter, water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition aid.

  • Moderate rainfall between 50 - 100 mm is expected in southern parts of Sudan and some parts of western Ethiopia which constitute part of the Nile River catchment area.

  • Prepositioned relief items are being depleted and with the increase in the number of people affected, stocks need urgent replenishment.

SITUATION OVERVIEW

Heavy rains and flash flooding have been reported in 14 out of 18 states across the country. As of 23 September, over 303,000 people have been affected with over 14,800 homes destroyed and 45,300 homes damaged. The affected states include Aj Jazirah, Blue Nile, Gedaref, Kassala, Khartoum, North Kordofan, Northern, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan, and White Nile. The most affected states are White Nile (97,600 people), Gedaref (56,000 people), Aj Jazirah (54,570 people), River Nile (39,400 people), and Sennar (17,400 people). An unconfirmed number of public infrastructure and farmlands have also been affected.

According to the IGAD ICPAC 21-28 September forecast, moderate rainfall between 50 - 100 mm is expected in southern parts of Sudan, South Sudan, and some parts of western Ethiopia which constitute part of the Nile River catchment area. Light rainfall is expected over the southern part of Sudan.

The Nile River water levels have started to recede below flood risk levels in Khartoum, Ed Diem, Shendi and Atbara station, according to the Ministry of Irrigation and water resource. Currently, the Nile River water level in the Ed Deim station is 12.23 meters, which is seven centimetres below the flooding risk level. In Khartoum station, water levels are 12 centimetres below the critical risk level, while in Shandi station, the water level is 20 centimetres below the critical risk level.

RESPONSE

Humanitarian partners continue to provide food and non-food assistance to people affected by heavy rains and floods in 14 flood-affected states. Over 183,000 people were reached with various types of humanitarian assistance. Over 88,000 people affected in Aj Jazirah, Blue Nile, Gedaref, North Kordofan, River Nile and White Nile states have received food assistance. About 38,000 people received one-month food rations, while 50,000 people received 3-15 days food rations. Over 71,800 people received shelter and NFIs (S/NFIs) while about 7,500 people received water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assistance. Health partners were able to reach over 14,500 people with direct health services in addition to the routine programs and services. Some 1,892 children were reached with nutritional support since the start of the rainy season. People affected by heavy rains and flooding in Blue Nile, River Nile and West Kordofan states are yet to receive S/NFI assistance. Similarly, people affected by the flooding in Khartoum, Northern, Sennar and West Kordofan states need urgent food and WASH assistance.

There are limited stocks of relief supplies in shelter, education, child protection and gender-based violence sectors. Stocks need to be replenished and if flooding continues, humanitarian partners will face challenges responding to this and other ongoing humanitarian emergencies.

Humanitarian partners are facing various challenges, impacting the timely delivery of assistance. In River Nile and Northern states, the lack of humanitarian partners on the ground is impacting overall humanitarian response. While in West Kordofan, lack of access due to floodwaters and security challenges are impacting the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance.

FLOOD RESPONSE BY STATE

Aj Jazirah State

Over 10, 500 families in Um Algura (2,000 people), Mijar 6 (3,500 people), and Village 27 (5,000 people) received food assistance, according to the Government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) and state flood focal points. About 1,680 families in Um Algura locality received mosquito nets. Over 40,000 people affected by the flood need food assistance and 6,773 families need shelter and non-food items (S/NFI), according to HAC.

Blue Nile State

In the Hai Abu Meidan area of Ed Damazine town, 367 families were reached with vector control activities, latrine disinfection, and hygiene kit distribution, while 366 families received mosquito nets. About 10,000 people, including people affected by floods, were reached with Integrated Management of Child Illness (IMCI) and emergency drugs supplies. Routine immunizations were accelerated in the flood-affected areas of Ed Damazine and Ar Rusayris localities.

The health cluster, in collaboration with the State Ministry of Health (SMoH), developed a response plan to respond to floods in Hai Abu median area of Ed Damazine town targeting the disinfection of collapsed latrines; vector control activities; water quality monitoring; distribution of chlorine tablets; and the activation of daily zero reporting of public health concerns. According to the SMoH, pools of stagnant waters in lowland areas are creating breeding grounds for various types of vectors and need urgent interventions.

Nutrition partners started mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) screening in Hai Abu Median area targeting children under five years old as well as pregnant and lactating women (PLW). A total of 472 children were screened, of whom seven were identified with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 33 with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), while seven PLW were identified with MAM. Infant and Young Children Feeding (IYCF) awareness sessions—focusing on IYCF and hygiene practices—were held for 542 women.

The main road from Sennar to Blue Nile State has been cut off for the third time on 18 September 2021 due to flooding, affecting the movement of humanitarian supplies, disrupting public services, and impacting the availability of food and basic commodities in the state.

Kassala State

On 15 September, an assessment team visited six villages in Reifi Aroma locality and estimated that over 7,300 people (1,461 families) have been affected by the overflooding of Al Gash River. In North Aroma locality, one health facility has been damaged. Families are unable to access safe water and are using the floodwaters for drinking and house consumption. No deaths or injuries have been reported so far, and the impact on agricultural land is still unclear. NFIs were distributed to 47 families (a plastic sheet, blankets, and bed nets). Further assessments are taking place to verify the needs and number of people affected.

Khartoum State

In Khartoum State, 4,180 people affected by floods received NFIs and hygiene kits in Jebel Awlia, Sharg An Neel, Um Bada and Um Durman localities. The assistance was provided by S/NFI sector partners and the Sudanese Red Crescent Society (SRCS). Vector control activities are ongoing in Karrari locality, targeting 180 families.

Sennar State

In As Suki locality 128 families received S/NFIs including a blanket, mosquito net, jerry can, hygiene kit and chlorine tablets.

White Nile State

Over 97,000 people have been affected by heavy rains and flooding in White Nile State since July 2021. This includes 36,000 South Sudanese refugees in Alagaya refugee camp and over 64,000 people from the host community in Guli and Aj Jabalain localities. Some 40,000 people were reportedly affected in Aj Jabalain locality, including host communities in 53 villages.

Food security and livelihood (FSL) partners are providing food assistance targeting 40,000 people affected by floods in White Nile State. During the reporting period, about 25,000 people were reached with one-month food rations in Aj Jabalain locality.

About 2,000 families in Al Gana refugee camp received S/NFI assistance. Many families affected by floods are taking refuge in schools, public facilities, and open spaces. Cluster partners plan to reach 4,900 flood-affected families with S/NFI assistance using available stocks in the state. However, partners reported a shortage of tents and shelter NFIs in Guli and Aj Jabalain locality.

The SMoH has reported 10 suspected cases of Jaundice in Aj Jabalain locality. Samples have been collected for laboratory investigations and water quality monitoring activities have started in flood-affected localities. Partners have reported insufficient hygiene and sanitation facilities and increasing practice of open defecation, which increased the risks of disease outbreaks.

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Sudan

Situation Report

Highlights

  • Over 303,000 people affected by heavy rains and flash floods in 14 states across the country.
  • About 14,800 homes were destroyed, over 45,300 homes were damaged.
  • Prepositioned relief items are being depleted and there is an urgent need to replenish stocks.
  • The Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has allocated $7.7 million for swift humanitarian response across the country.
  • World Relief provides health, nutrition and psychosocial support to conflict-affected people in Ag Geneina, West Darfur.
WHD-thehumanrace-logox1200

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Sudan

Situation Report

Key Figures

9.8M
severely food-insecure people
8.9M
people targeted for assistance in 2021
1.1M
refugees
2.55M
internally displaced people
37,627
total people who contracted COVID-19
2,820
COVID-19-related deaths
55,493
Ethiopian refugees in the east & Blue Nile
5.4M
People reached with aid (Jan-Mar 2021)
303,327
people affected by floods
14,824
houses destroyed
45,393
houses damaged

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Sudan

Situation Report

Funding

$1.9B
Required
$487.2M
Received
25%
Progress
FTS

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Contacts

Paola Emerson

Head of Office for OCHA Sudan

Sofie Karlsson

Head, Communications

James Steel

Head, Information Management

Alimbek Tashtankulov

Public Information Officer

Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Floods affected-locality-2021
States affected by floods

Sudan Floods Update

Key Figures (as of 23 September 2021)

  • Number of People Affected: 303,327

  • Number of homes destroyed: 14,824

  • Number of homes damaged: 45,393

Heavy rains and flash floods affected over 303,000 people across the country as of 20 September 2021. Close to 15,000 homes were destroyed, over 45,300 homes were damaged, and an unconfirmed number of public infrastructure facilities and farmlands have been affected. Heavy rain and flooding have been reported in 14 out of 18 states, including Aj Jazirah, Blue Nile, Gedaref, Kassala, Khartoum, North Kordofan, Northern, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, West Kordofan and White Nile River Nile. Aj Jazirah, South Darfur, Gedaref and West Darfur are the most affected states. Nile River water levels have been rising since mid-July and currently Nile River water levels have surpassed flooding levels at the Khartoum station (Khartoum State), Ed Deim station (Blue Nile State), and at the Atbara and Shendi stations in River Nile State. The rainy season in Sudan is usually from June to September.

The Government, led by the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), and humanitarian partners have started providing life-saving assistance to people affected. However, prepositioned relief items are being depleted and there is an urgent need to replenish stocks, especially if the humanitarian situation deteriorates further.

Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) Support

In support of the flood response, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) has allocated US$7.7 million to 14 NGOs in 15 states to finance swift humanitarian response when needed. In addition, some $7 million has been allocated to four UN agencies for the procurement of emergency stocks. Another $3.5 million is available for floods rapid response activities.

2020 Floods

In 2020, almost 900,000 people across 18 states were affected in the worst flooding in the country in 100 years. Over 140 people died, 94,000 homes were destroyed, and 83,000 homes were damaged. An estimated 2.2 million hectares of agricultural land was flooded, representing 26.8 per cent of cultivated areas in 15 assessed states. Flash floods submerged villages and caused immense damage to infrastructure, including dams, roads, bridges and highways. Due to unreliable drainage systems, there was stagnant water in different locations, posing a risk to health outbreaks as pools of water become breeding grounds for water-borne and vector-borne diseases such as cholera, dengue fever, rift valley fever, and chikungunya. Hygiene and sanitary levels plummeted due to flooded latrines and contaminated water supplies, preventing people from exercising necessary COVID-19 prevention measures.

Helpful Resources

For more data on the floods in Sudan see the OCHA Sudan Floods Dashboard: Sudan Floods: People & Areas Affected

Previous Flash updates

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 14 (23 September 2021)

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 13 (16 September 2021)

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 12 (9 September 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 11 (8 September 2021) [EN]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 10 (2 September 2021) [EN]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 09 (24 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 08 (19 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 07 (18 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 06 (12 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 05 (9 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 04 (05 August 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 03 (29 July 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 02 (27 July 2021) [EN/AR]

Sudan: Floods Flash Update No. 01 (23 July 2021) [EN]

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Sudan

Situation Report
Feature
Hajir Ahmed Hassan, a psychologist with World Relief, reviews drawings made by displaced children as part of psychotherapy in Ag Geneina town, West Darfur, Sudan. © OCHA/Lilian Nduta

Sudan Humanitarian Fund project helps children affected by conflict

At a makeshift health clinic set up alongside a road in Ag Geneina, a town in West Darfur, Sudan, several young girls sketch flowers, while the young boys in the group draw weapons and make mud moulds of military vehicles.

“I have been encouraging them to make drawings from happier memories before the conflict that led to their displacement,” says Hajir Ahmed Hassan, a psychologist who works in one of the child-friendly clinics in the area managed by the non-governmental organization (NGO) World Relief through a grant from the OCHA-managed Sudan Humanitarian Fund. “The boys associate soldiers with power, having experienced conflict first-hand,” she explains.

The drawing activities serve as therapy to help the children overcome psychological trauma as a result of the conflict in West Darfur.

All the children who participate in the activities come from displaced families. Four schools in Ag Geneina are currently closed because they are occupied by displaced people. The town currently has 71 gathering sites for internally displaced people.

The clinic where Hajir works provides health, nutrition and psychosocial support to children with severe and moderate acute malnutrition, as well as to pregnant and lactating women with moderate acute malnutrition.

Every morning, Hajir spends two hours with more than 30 children in makeshift structures or under the shade of large trees to address psychosocial issues arising from their displacement and current circumstances. She also engages with the children in recreational activities as part of therapy services.

When conflict broke out in West Darfur in January 2021, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund released US$300,0000 through its Emergency Rapid Response Mechanism within a week, and an additional $599,000 from its Reserve for Emergencies within three weeks, to respond to rising humanitarian needs.

The Fund has provided a total of $1.3 million for response activities in West Darfur to World Relief and Save the Children, while the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) provided an additional $5 million in January of this year to various partners.

With its share of the funds, World Relief has provided health, nutrition and psychosocial support through two fixed health facilities and nine temporary health clinics over the past eight months. Among the services provided include trucking clean water to 18 gathering sites for internally displaced people; installing water tanks; and distributing jerry cans to vulnerable households.

World Relief also built 18 communal latrines with handwashing facilities and carried out 28 hygiene promotion and environmental safety sessions in Ag Geneina. This past June, the NGO also added recreational activities and counselling related to general protection and gender-based violence. This assistance reached 58,344 internally displaced people, comprising 12,752 men, 13,335 women, 15,669 boys and 16,588 girls.

The Sudan Humanitarian Fund is a country-based pooled fund managed by OCHA Sudan under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator. It collects donor contributions to make funding directly available to humanitarian partners working on the ground so they can deliver timely and effective life-saving assistance and protection to the most vulnerable people in need.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Feature
united-nations-office-at-nairobi-unicef-model-united-nations-flag-of-the-united-nations-unite-350x350

United Nations Secretary-General Message on World Humanitarian Day 2021

New York, 19 August 2021

Humanitarian workers are here to help the world’s most vulnerable people when disaster strikes.

But around the world, aid workers face growing threats. In the past 20 years, shootings, kidnappings, and other attacks on humanitarian organizations have increased tenfold. This year alone, at least 72 humanitarian workers have been killed in conflict zones.

On World Humanitarian Day, we pay tribute to aid workers everywhere, and commit to doing everything possible to protect them and their vital work.

This year's campaign for World Humanitarian Day focuses on the climate crisis, which threatens the homes, livelihoods and lives of some of the world’s poorest people.

By signing up to #TheHumanRace, your daily exercise will help send a message to global leaders that climate action can leave no one behind.

The climate emergency is a race we are losing. But it's a race we can and must win.

Let’s lace up our running shoes, join #TheHumanRace campaign, and together, make sure everyone reaches the finish line.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Feature
Preparation-for-tree-transplantation
Preparing the land to plant the trees (Photo Credit: UNEP)

Community forests to fight climate change and build community resilience in North Darfur - The story of Shadia

In commemoration of World Humanitarian Day this year we demand climate action for the people who need it most. Time has run out and urgent action is needed to protect people and save the most vulnerable from climate disaster. #TheHumanRace

“The climate emergency is a race we are losing, but it is a race that we can win” – Antonio Guterres, United Nations Secretary-General.

Let us hear the story of Shadia, a housewife, and the women-led community forest program her village established with the help of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project.

With climate change in North Darfur, rainfall has been erratic, and temperatures are rising, leading to food shortages and conflict as farmers and pastoralists compete for scarce natural resources. This put great pressure on local environments where they cut down trees for firewood, reducing forest and plant cover.

Under the UNEP Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project in North Darfur, forestry and agro-forestry activities have been introduced, promoted, and spread to solve environmental problems and to benefit communities. This activity is considered one of the innovative, nature-based solutions to tackle environmental issues in rural areas.

Last year, more than 60,000 seedlings of native tree varieties (out of 150,000 planned) have been transplanted in different villages as community forests and shelterbelts (a line of trees or shrubs planted to protect an area from strong winds and the erosion they cause) by UNEP, the international NGO Practical Action and community-based networks in collaboration with the Forest National Corporation (FNC) in El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur.

Allah Maragh village is about 15 km from El Fasher, and is one of the villages where 2,000 seedlings were transplanted for a community forest. Communities in the village had received extensive training on planting site preparation, seedling spacing by species, water harvesting, and irrigation techniques.

The 38-year-old Shadia Abdelkreem Adam, a wife who takes care of her husband's five children, said "When I was 10 years old, my family used to get extra food, fodders, local medicines, wood, fuelwood from the forest that surrounded our village. But there are no trees and no forests as a result of deforestation and conflict." Shadia explained that the forestation in her village was a women-led initiative from start to end. She said, "In 2015, the project's team conducted a participatory planning session with our communities to identify the village priorities and one of them was the establishment of a community forest. In the same year, a forest committee was formed to lead and manage all future activities. The committee includes an equal number of women and men, but women have played a prominent role in the success of all activities until date. We received extensive training and successfully transplanted different species of trees to kick start our new community forest before the end of 2015. Last year, more seedlings were transplanted."

The species of seedlings were selected by communities with the support of Practical Action and FNC. They included Grewia tenax, Hashab (Acacia Senegal), Katir (Acacia mellifera), Nabag (Ziziphus spina-christi), and Neem (Azadirachta indica). These trees were planted in an area of nine feddans (3.78 hectares).

Shadia concluded by saying, "It's been more than five years since we transplanted the seedlings, you can now see the trees are growing, with them the hope is growing inside us. Our forest is bringing our communities together, it protected our village from wind, it provides shade for everyone, community leaders, women groups, children, and even animals. Now, all meetings are taking place under the shade of these trees and vital decisions are taken there as well. Moreover, this forest opened an opportunity for women to be organized and to form a small saving group, which I'm personally benefiting from. More importantly in 2021 we are expecting high production of Gum Arabic from the tree. If that happens, the forest committee members - including me - will sell the products and generate money to support our village and communities."

The community forest has environmental benefits including improved biodiversity; reduced soil erosion; sand dunes fixation; improved water availability; climate change adaptation; climate change mitigation; wind speed reduction; soil fertility enhancement; evapotranspiration reduction; and increasing rainfall rate.

We asked Shadia to send a message, and she said, "My message to my community, the people of Sudan and everyone in the world, please plant more trees, protect the ones existing, and take care of them the same way you are taking care of your children and family."

Shadia and her community have proved that community-based forest management approaches can generate positive environmental and social outcomes. This in turn will help address other issues such as climate change and poverty.

The Wadi El Ku Catchment Management Project is funded by the European Union (EU) and implemented UNEP in partnership with the Government of Sudan, and the international NGO Practical Action.

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Sudan

Situation Report
Emergency Response
Flood damage in Wad Mukhtar Village Khartoum State OCHA Sept20
Flood damage in Wad Mukhtar Village, Khartoum (OCHA, 2020)

Sudan preparedness plan for 2021

In the second year of the political transition in Sudan, humanitarian needs continue to grow across the country, driven by localized armed clashes, intercommunal violence, displacement, climatic shocks and hazards, disease outbreaks that disrupted the livelihoods of vulnerable households and aggravated food insecurity, malnutrition and protection risks. The situation is exacerbated by the deepening economic crisis, coupled with the socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability. In 2020, Sudan experienced the worst flooding in decades affecting about 900,000 people. About 79,400 homes were destroyed and 92,500 homes and 560 schools were damaged.

According to the IGAD forecast, most of Sudan, western Ethiopian and most of the Karamoja cluster (Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia) will receive heavy to very heavy rains from June to September. This can result in flash flooding and riverine floods in Sudan. Based on the lessons learned from previous years and above normal rainfall forecast in most of Sudan and Nile basin countries, UN and partners developed the Sudan Preparedness Plan for 2021 to ensure timely delivery of assistance to affected communities. The plan targets approximately 540,000 people—based on the five-year average—who could be affected by flooding, disease outbreak and conflict in 2021. Projected needs are water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), shelter and non-food items (S/NFI), and protection assistance—particularly gender-based violence (GBV). Current stocks are not sufficient to cover projected needs for the rainy season. Emergency stocks are being used to respond to IDP needs due to recent conflicts in some states, further depleting stocks and impacting humanitarian partners response capacity. Prepositioning and replenishment of life-saving relief items in hard-to-reach localities is paramount as roads become inaccessible during the rainy season. Regular programming and humanitarians are advocating for early and flexible funding to help meet the needs of these vulnerable people. In 2021, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) provided $7 million for the prepositioning of supplies.

Humanitarian response will be undertaken within the framework of the 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan, with an emphasis on providing multi-sectoral life-saving assistance to people affected by crises across the country. The response will be guided by the Humanitarian Country Team Emergency Response Framework and Standard Operating Procedures to enable cohesive, principled and timely emergency response. The humanitarian community will work with the Government-led Flood Taskforce to ensure response planning and activities are effectively coordinated. In addition, inter-sector coordination groups assigned flood response focal points to support rainy season response coordination in collaboration with government counterparts in the relevant ministries at national and sub-national levels. To enhance response capacity, OCHA organized capacity-building trainings for government emergency response staff on response coordination, humanitarian needs assessment, and humanitarian principles. A total of 15 states have been covered and 390 people have been trained, with the aim to cover the whole country by end of August 2021.

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Emergency Response
Registration of Ethiopian Refugees in Um Rakuba UNHCR Ahmed Kwarte
Registration of Ethiopian Refugees in Um Rakuba (UNHCR/Ahmed Kwarte)

UNHCR and partners revise Ethiopian Refugee Response Plan for Sudan

As refugees from Ethiopia’s Tigray region continue to seek refuge in Sudan, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and partners have revised the Sudan Refugee influx from Ethiopia Response Plan that was launched in November 2020. The revised plan expands the timeframe of the plan to 31 December 2021 and incorporates flood preparedness and response costs and costs for the response in Blue Nile State. The financial requirement has increased by US $33 million bringing the total cost of the plan to about $182 million while the planning figure is for 120,000 refugee arrivals until the end of the year. The plan is 47 per cent funded as of 3o June, according to the latest Ethiopian Emergency Situation - Funding Update.

Background

In November 2020, conflict in Ethiopia’s Tigray region led to the influx of tens of thousands of Ethiopian refugees into eastern Sudan. Refugees were arriving into Kassala and Gedaref states at an average rate of over 2,700 people a day.

UNHCR teams on the ground are working with the Sudanese Commissioner for Refugees (COR), local authorities and partners to monitor and mobilize resources to provide life-saving assistance such as including shelter, food, water, sanitation, health and education to thousands of refugees fleeing conflict in Tigray.

With the onset of the rainy season, major storms with heavy winds have caused damages to shelter and infrastructure in the two settlements – Um Rakuba and Tunaydbah. UNHCR and partners are in a race against time and nature as storms may intensify and floods worsen in the coming weeks and are calling for additional support which will allow for infrastructure improvements to the camps, and construction of more durable traditional shelters for families living in the camps. In addition, UNHCR and partners are scaling up support in other critical sectors such as water, sanitation, protection and health, constructing and rehabilitating roads to ensure access throughout the rainy season, and digging drainage systems to reduce the flooding risks.

Over 46,000 Ethiopian refugees from Tigray have been biometric registered in eastern Sudan as of 1st July 2021. In Blue Nile State, about 7,400 Ethiopian refugees have arrived from the Benishangul Gumuz region fleeing ethnic conflict and also require assistance.

As of July 2021, Sudan hosts over 1.1 million refugees from South Sudan, Eritrea, Central African Republic, Ethiopia and other countries. The country faces multiple challenges, including over 300 per cent annual inflation and fuel shortages. According to the latest International Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) report food insecurity levels are the highest ever recorded in Sudan. The 2021 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) estimates that over 13.4 million people need assistance, including over one million refugees.

For more information read the revised plan: Inter-Agency Refugee Emergency Response Plan - Sudan: Refugee Influx from Ethiopia, November 2020 to December 2021 (Revision, May 2021)

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Situation Report
Forecast
IDP-women-farmers-harvest-the-Okra-they-planted-in-Azaza-village-Blue-Nile-State FAO 2021
IDP women farmers harvest their crops in Blue Nile State (@FAO/Amani Muawia)

High prices of agricultural supplies may affect cropping season – FAO

Despite favourable projections for this year’s farming season, soaring prices of agricultural supplies will likely affect planted areas and crop yields. This is due to due to sustained inflation and dwindling foreign currency reserves that are hampering imports. In addition, the full removal of fuel subsidies in June has constrained farmers’ access to fuel, affecting the semi-mechanized and irrigated sectors, which account on average for about half of the aggregate cereal output.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said in its newly released GIEWS country update for Sudan that the planting of 2021 crops, for harvest from October, is well underway. The June-September rainy season is characterized by an early onset at the beginning of May.

Rainfall has continued at above-average levels. In mid-June satellite estimates indicated cumulative rainfall surpluses over most cropping areas. According to the latest Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF) weather forecasts, seasonal rains are expected to be above average across the country. If these forecasts materialize and the distribution of rains is favourable, the abundant precipitation will boost crop yields. However, there will be a heightened risk of flooding, especially in low-lying and riverine areas alongside the River Nile and its tributaries.

Cereal prices at exceptionally high levels

Food prices are expected to rise and availability and access to food continues to be limited due to COVID-19 containment measures and the impact of the 2020 floods. This will worsen the food security of Sudanese farmers, particularly smallholders and vulnerable households who cannot afford to purchase food for their families or agricultural supplies needed to resume farming. About 58 per cent of the population is involved in the agricultural sector in Sudan.

Substantial devaluation of the Sudanese Pound from SDG 55/USD to SDG 375/USD in late February reduced the gap between the official and parallel market exchange rates, easing inflationary pressures. It caused prices of sorghum and millet to decline in some markets by up to 15 per cent between February and April (FAO Food Price Monitoring and Analysis bulletin). Subsequently, prices resumed their upward trend, which started in late 2017, increasing by 5-15 per cent in May as the local currency further depreciated in the parallel market from SDG 393/USD in April to SDG 436/USD in May. Prices of wheat, mostly imported, levelled off in April and May in some markets as local harvests in March increased market availability. Prices of cereals in May were exceptionally high—about double the price of last year—mainly due to a weak local currency and soaring prices of fuel and agricultural supplies, which inflated production and transportation costs.

Food security situation affected by multiple shocks

According to the results of the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis, about 9.8 million people (21 per cent of the analyzed population in the survey) are estimated to be severely food insecure for the period June-September 2021. This figure includes about 7.1 million people in crisis situation (IPC Phase 3) and 2.7 million people in emergency levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 4). While the total number of severely food insecure people is similar to the estimate of food insecure people in 2020, the number of people estimated to be in the emergency phase is more than 20 per cent higher, indicating an increase in severity of food insecurity.

The main drivers are macro-economic challenges resulting in rampant food and non-food inflation, the lingering impact of the 2020 widespread floods on livelihoods and the escalation of inter-communal violence in western Greater Darfur Region and in eastern South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Blue Nile states. So far, about 22 per cent of the localities affected by the devastating impact of the 2020 floods have received assistance from the government and humanitarian actors, according to FAO. Further assistance is urgently needed, and additional funds are required to maintain livelihood interventions and provide necessary emergency and recovery support.

The highest prevalence of food insecurity is reported in East, North and West Darfur, in Blue Nile and in North and South Kordofan states, where the macro-economic challenges are compounded by inter-communal violence. In these areas, between 25 and 30 per cent of the population is estimated to be severely food insecure. In addition, 18 per cent of the population of Khartoum State is estimated to face food insecurity, 3 per cent more than the same period of the previous year. Humanitarian needs are particularly high for IDPs, estimated at 2.55 million people, and for 1.1 million refugees, including 793 000 people from South Sudan and 45,000 people from the conflict-affected Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

Humanitarian organizations are advocating for early and flexible funding as the economic crisis and inflation are increasing the number of people in need and the severity of their situation.

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Emergency Response
2020-SHF-donor-contributions
2020 donor contributions to the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF)

In 2020, 7.6 million vulnerable people in Sudan were assisted with funds allocated by the Sudan Humanitarian Fund

In 2020, the Sudan Humanitarian Fund (SHF) raised US$72.6 million, the highest amount in seven years, thanks to the generosity of the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark, Switzerland, Norway, Canada, Italy, Korea, Estonia and private contributors. This funding allowed the SHF to play an important role in a coordinated, multi-cluster humanitarian response that provided critical support to 7.6 million vulnerable people across the country.

Almost half the $75 million allocated by the Fund in 2020 was channelled through the Reserve for Emergencies (RfE), which allowed the SHF to quickly provide funds in response to five humanitarian crises: COVID-19; a locust invasion; a vaccine-derived polio outbreak; unprecedented floods; and the refugee influx from Ethiopia’s Tigray region.

In 2020 the SHF also piloted the Emergency Rapid Response Mechanism (ERRM), which allowed the disbursement of pre-approved funds within the first days of an emergency. The ERRM was successfully used to respond to the floods and the Ethiopian refugee crisis.

For more information on the activities of the SHF in 2020 read the Sudan Humanitarian Fund Annual Report 2020

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Situation Report
Trends
Al Jebel neighbourhood, Ag Geneina

105,100 IDPs in Ag Geneina Remain Displaced - IOM

About 105,100 people remain displaced across various locations in and around Ag Geneina. To continue verifying the figures in the displacement sites, IOM participated in a joint rapid verification exercise between 27 May and 12 June 2021 with the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) and other humanitarian partners across 48 of the 93 displacement sites in Ag Geneina town.

The findings of the verification mission indicate a decrease of approximately 40,000 individuals, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported in its 18th Emergency Event Tracking update issued on 12 June 2021. This reflects a 30 per cent decrease in the displaced caseload. For more information and details, please see the IOM’s latest EET update at this link.

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Situation Report
Feature
Sawakin, an IDP in Ag Geneina

Helping displaced women and girls in Ag Geneina tackle the trauma of violence and displacement

Sawakin, 35, fled armed clashes that erupted in the Al Jebel neighbourhood of Ag Geneina, capital of West Darfur earlier in April. Sawakin’s house was torched and pillaged. Her family lost all their belongings, including food, livestock and clothes. Together with her husband and seven children, Sawakin fled the fighting and sought refuge at the Moheria Girls School IDP gathering point in town.

‘’During our first nights here, I was very scared and had difficulty sleeping - afraid of being attacked again. Fearing the unknown future and what I might face left me anxious and depressed. I still get painful flashbacks of my house burning. The sound of shooting still rings in my head,” Sawakin told aid workers when they visited the site on 24 June.

Similar to other IDP gathering sites in Ag Geneina, the Moheria Girls School is overcrowded with a lack of privacy and basic services such as water, sanitation and medical services, which put even more stress on displaced women and girls.

To provide some basics for her family, Sawakin found casual work at the local market, then switched to washing clothes and was receiving some humanitarian assistance to complement the family’s income.  Her husband managed to find only some odd jobs that paid little.

Sawakin, along with many other women at the gathering sites, suffered from anxiety and depression exacerbated by a sense of detachment from her community and normal life. To seek treatment and help, she met with social workers deployed by the State Ministry of Social Development and the Child Development Fund who referred her to the women and girls space set up at the school by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). There, she received psychosocial support (PSS) services in the form of group sessions, orientation sessions and recreational activities.

The women and girls’ space created the opportunity to express herself and discuss her issues and concerns with other displaced women who had been through similar experiences. This newfound sense of community and comradery helped Sawakin to take on a proactive role at the women and girls’ space, volunteering her time to lead handcraft workshops on knitting and embroidery as well as raising awareness among her peers on gender-based violence (GBV) issues.

The women and girls spaces provide PSS, GBV referrals, dignity kits, awareness-raising and recreational activities. Women are referred to these spaces by social workers and volunteers that make up community-based protection networks.

To mitigate GBV risks associated with collecting firewood and charcoal outside the gathering sites, UNFPA offers workshops on making fuel-efficient stoves, thereby reducing the number of times women need to venture outside.

These temporary spaces are part of UNFPA’s integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and GBV response, where social workers coordinate with midwives deployed by the State Ministry of Health for timely referrals to services including GBV, medical response, PSS, maternity care and family planning.

Sawakin is one of 1,500 women and girls who access the five UNFPA temporary safe spaces in Ag Geneina each month. Given the high number of IDPs and gathering sites in West Darfur, additional mobile SRH clinics and temporary women and girls spaces need to be set up; more trained social workers, psychologists and health care providers need to be deployed; community protection networks need to be expanded and strengthened; and dignity kits need to be distributed on a wider scale combined with awareness-raising activities to ensure access to quality SRH-GBV life-saving services and community support for all.

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Situation Report
Emergency Response
Refugee shelters in the east damaged by rain and floods - MSF

Wind and rain destroy hundreds of Tigray refugee tents

Thousands of refugees in Gedaref State who fled conflict in northern Ethiopia’s Tigray region are now stuck in precarious conditions at the mercy of the rainy season. In May, a storm created panic and destroyed a couple of hundred tents in Al Tunaydbah, one of two official camps that together host some 40,000 refugees from Tigray. Three weeks later on 7 June, a second storm destroyed the remaining 2,000 tents in the camp. Some refugees had managed to reinforce their tents in advance, but most lacked the material and funds to do so and are now sharing tents with others or in communal shelters.

The Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) clinic in the camp was also damaged by the second storm, despite measures taken to protect it. "The metal roof was damaged, the emergency room is not functional, the partitions fell, and the biggest partition is broken," said Sergio Scor, MSF project coordinator. "The pharmacy was flooded, but thankfully the medication and the boxes of supplies were all safe on pallets and metal shelves. The damage to MSF's clinic can be repaired, but what was heart-breaking was hearing people screaming and seeing them running around the camp seeking shelter in the middle of the night."

"I was afraid for my life last night," said Rigat, a 25-year-old woman from Tigray. "I left my tent because it got destroyed and I ran with some belongings to my grandfather's tent, which he reinforced. When I arrived, there were 20 people inside. All the neighbours came to my grandfather's tent because it was still standing. But we could not sleep—there was no place to lie down. So, we just sat there and waited for dawn. I really don't want to stay in this camp, but I know I can't go back to Tigray either. I don't know what to do."

Many refugees have expressed a wish to leave the camp due to the weather and deteriorating conditions. Each day dozens of people leave, some heading for Hamdayet, the crossing point between Sudan and Ethiopia, from which they return to the conflict area of Tigray. Others are going to the other camp in the state, Hashaba. However, most of the refugees who leave plan to head to Libya, from which they will risk their lives attempting to reach Europe.

Wind and flooding pose a dire threat

MSF had already raised the alarm at all levels—from camp management and aid agencies to governments and donors—about the risks of extreme weather conditions associated with the rainy season in this part of Sudan. The site selected for Al Tunaydbah camp is built on "black cotton" soil, a clay soil, which is hard and cracks during the dry season but becomes wet, sticky, and muddy in the rain. The area is prone to both high winds and flooding. There is an urgent need to carry out wind and flood prevention activities and reinforce tents and latrines.

"These measures were supposed to be implemented several months ago, even before the arrival of refugees at the camp," said Jean-Nicolas Dangelser, MSF head of mission. "We all knew that the main issue of the camp is the extreme wind during [the] rainy season, and failure to prepare for it on time by aid organizations has left many refugees with no choice but to leave the camp. We will continue working to support people in the camp, but it is too late to repair the psychological pressure inflicted by the damage to their tents and possessions."

"I have four friends who went to Libya; the last call I had with them was two months ago," said a 24-year-old man named Ben who is living in Al Tunaydbah. "They know the danger. I tried to tell them many times, but we cannot blame them. Look at this place—they go out of pure despair."

MSF has been working in Al Tunaydbah camp since December 2020, running a clinic that provides primary and secondary health care, inpatient care, vaccinations, and malnutrition treatment. We also provide regular health checks for new arrivals at the camp, and MSF water and sanitation teams have constructed latrines and an emergency water treatment plant. 

Please see the original story here at this link

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Tigray refugees in Sudan - UNICEF

The number of Ethiopian refugees in eastern Sudan reduced following the verification exercise

The number of Ethiopian refugees sheltering in Gedaref, Kassala and Blue Nile states reduced by 25 per cent following the verification exercise completed at the end of May. The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) reported that by 31 May about 52,600 refugees from Ethiopia were verified. Gedaref and Kassala are hosting an estimated 45,150 refugees from Tigray and Blue Nile have about 7,400 refugees from the western Ethiopian region of Benishangul Gumuz. The previous estimate of Ethiopian refugees who arrived in eastern Sudan and Blue Nile was about 70,000 people.

In November 2020, UNHCR started recording an influx of Ethiopian refugees at the border entry points in eastern Sudan from northern Ethiopia, after military confrontations in the Tigray region.

UNHCR with the Sudanese Commissioner for Refugees (COR), local authorities and other partners in the refugee response continue to monitor and respond, providing life-saving assistance.

Similarly, Ethiopian asylum seekers have been crossing from the Benishangul-Gumuz region into Sudan’s Blue Nile State. UNHCR, COR and partners are also responding to their needs.

The number of refugees arriving per month has been steadily reducing and in May only 159 new arrivals were registered in Kassala and Geraref and another 162 new arrivals in Blue Nile states.

With the onset of the rainy season, extreme weather in late May and early June resulted in damage to several tents, shared latrines, and other facilities in the Um Rakuba and Tunaydbah camps in eastern Sudan. Heavy rains and strong winds during the first half of June damaged about 2,500 tents in Um Rakuba and 2,700 in Tunaydbah.

The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) has completed a technical shelter assessment, based on which they are providing replacement tents. UNHCR is establishing seven evacuation centres. COR and partners are determining whether temporary shelters like rakubas – rectangular-shaped huts made of grass, millet stalks and wooden poles with thatched flat roofs – can be constructed during the rainy season. The construction of tukuls, which are more permanent shelters, is planned after the rainy season.

For more on Ethiopian refugee response please see Sudan Refugee Operational Portal

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Analysis
HRP funding - FTS

HRP partners reach 5.4 million people with assistance in Q1 2021

During January-March 2021, humanitarian partners in Sudan reached 5.4 million vulnerable people with humanitarian assistance, according to the Humanitarian Dashboard – Q1 2021 issued by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) on behalf of the Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) partners.

During the first quarter of 2021, HRP partners reached 61 per cent of the 8.9 million people targeted for assistance in 2021.

Food Security and Livelihoods partners reached the highest number of people with assistance – 3.9 million people, the Health and WASH sectors assisted almost 800,000 people each and about 500,000 refugees received assistance. The refugee response has covered half of the one million refugees targeted.

Nutrition, education and protection sectors were the least funded each receiving less than two per cent of the requirements. HRP partners are advocating for early and flexible funding as the economic crisis and inflation are increasing the number of people in need and the severity of their situation. As of 29 June, HRP projects received 20 per cent of the $1.94 billion required funding.

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Access
WFP convoy

UN agencies in Sudan reach conflict-affected communities in non-government-controlled areas for first time in a decade

For the first time in ten years, United Nations humanitarian agencies have been able to access conflict-affected communities in the five non-governmental areas controlled by the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) El Hilu in South Kordofan and Blue Niles states of Sudan.

A series of humanitarian missions to the five isolated enclaves has concluded, just as renewed peace talks between the Government of Sudan and SPLM-N are ongoing in Juba, South Sudan. These five areas have largely been cut-off from support over the last decade and the missions’ findings indicate people are in dire need of improved food security, education, health, and water and sanitation services.

“This response marks a significant breakthrough in humanitarian access and response to conflict-affected communities previously unreached by UN humanitarian assistance. We commend the local efforts to support essential needs during the years of hardship. The humanitarian community in Sudan is calling for increased access and critically needed assistance to support these marginalized communities,” said Khardiata Lo N’diaye, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General and Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator in Sudan.

United Nations humanitarian agencies have not been able to reach or provide life-saving assistance to support people in the five locations since 2011, when conflict broke out between the Government of Sudan and the SPLM-N. Gaining humanitarian access to these communities provides a critical opportunity to improve lives and rebuild livelihoods.

“Communities in these areas have been struggling and surviving on little or nothing for a decade. Access for humanitarian agencies so they can increase their assistance to these vulnerable communities is critical. With improved food security and other opportunities, families will be able to reintegrate with the rest of Sudan and start to recover and rebuild,” said Eddie Rowe, United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) Country Director in Sudan.

WFP delivered 100 metric tons of nutritious biscuits for 25,000 school children in 83 schools on the five missions. This was the first assistance that people in these isolated areas had received from the UN in the last decade due to conflict and access constraints. A lack of food for students is one of the main challenges in maintaining school enrolment in these isolated areas. Providing school meals is among the top priorities for WFP’s response as access continues to open.

“Whilst these missions mark a major development, we need to ensure that humanitarian access to children and communities in need is always granted. No conditions should ever be set on access; humanitarian assistance should be provided at all times and from all places to those that need it. Findings from this mission are bleak. These children have been entirely ‘left behind’. We have to act now to ensure these children have a future. Collectively, efforts must be made to ensure access and sustain and scale up assistance,” said Abdullah Fadil, UNICEF Representative in Sudan.

Expanding humanitarian access to SPLM-N controlled enclaves is crucial to providing urgent assistance to an estimated 800,000 people in these areas, who desperately need relief following years of isolation. Ramping up support will help stabilize communities and pave the path for peacebuilding efforts, while reinforcing the UN’s commitment to assist marginalised populations in Sudan.

The UN World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), and the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) participated in missions over the last six weeks to five isolated areas in SPLM-N El Hilu controlled areas including Zozak and Amora in Blue Nile State and Kau/Nyaro, Rashad/New Tegali, and Western Jebels in South Kordofan State.

# # #

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) coordinates the global emergency response to save lives and protect people in humanitarian crises. We advocate for effective and principled humanitarian action by all, for all.

The United Nations World Food Programme is the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate. We are the world’s largest humanitarian organization, saving lives in emergencies and using food assistance to build a pathway to peace, stability and prosperity for people recovering from conflict, disasters and the impact of climate change.

UNICEF promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child and is committed to the children of Sudan. We never give up on finding solutions that provide immediate help to save the lives of children or provide durable support so that those children grow up with dignity, health and an education.

Contact:

Leni Kinzli, Head of External Relations, World Food Programme Sudan | +249 91 277 1269 | leni.kinzli@wfp.org

Fatma Mohammed Naib, Chief of Communication & Advocacy, UNICEF Sudan | +249 91 217 7030 fnaib@unicef.org

James Steel, Head of Communication and Information Management, OCHA Sudan |+249 912130340 | steel@un.org

For the PDF version in English, please click here

For the Arabic version, please access it here

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Millet seeds

The Government of Sudan, FAO and WFP call for investment in Sudan’s agriculture

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forests of Sudan, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)  have called for greater investment in Sudan’s agriculture and humanitarian assistance, as a new food security assessment shows that a record number of Sudanese will face acute food insecurity in the coming lean season.

The latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) results for Sudan say 9.8 million people are projected to be acutely food insecure (IPC Phase 3 and above) across the country throughout the lean season from June through September. This means that more than 20 per cent of Sudan’s population is projected to be experiencing acute food insecurity starting this month, the highest figure reported in the history of the IPC in Sudan.

Eltahir Harbi, Minister of Agriculture and Forests, said that his ministry’s main objective is to combat poverty and avail food for the nation, urging support for the government, FAO and WFP and other partners.

The key drivers of food insecurity in Sudan include floods, recurrent droughts, economic decline, inflation and displacement because of conflict.

The economy of Sudan is highly dependent on agriculture, which is the most important economic sector. Agriculture employs 43 per cent of Sudan’s labour force and accounts for about 30 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates (2019) and the World Bank. Sudan is one of the largest livestock producing countries in Africa and the Arab world, where the livestock sector contributes to the livelihoods of at least 26 million people.

“Agricultural production promotes livelihoods, save lives and restores livelihoods. Urgent action is needed to safeguard livelihoods and promote recovery through cash interventions, supplementary livestock feeding, and livelihood recovery and farming packages,’’ said Babagana Ahmadu, FAO Representative to Sudan.

The latest IPC results revealed that major acute food insecurity exists in 10 out of the 18 states in terms of caseload and proportion of food insecure populations compared to only two states in the penultimate IPC analysis from June to August 2019.

“Urgent action is required to save lives and that is our priority as WFP. It is not just about saving lives; it is about changing lives. All partners – UN, INGOs, Government, and private sector, including potential investors – must come together to reduce food insecurity in the country so we can reach zero hunger by 2030,” said Eddie Rowe, WFP Representative in Sudan.

The latest IPC analysis was released just a week after a high-level meeting in Paris, hosted by French President Emmanuel Macron, which advocated for broader economic reforms. The high levels of food insecurity underscore the need for investments in Sudan’s agricultural sector and productivity.

‘‘Creating an investment climate for the private sector to be actively involved in agriculture and agribusiness should be emphasized at all levels to pave way for small farmers and agro-industry owners to play a significant role in the development of the agriculture sector,” said Ahmadu.

Please see the original article here https://www.wfp.org/news/government-sudan-fao-and-wfp-call-investment-sudans-agriculture-number-people-facing-acute

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Analysis
IPC map June-Sep 2021

Almost 10 million people are acutely food insecure and need urgent assistance – IPC

The IPC’s latest assessment projects that almost 10 million people – more than 21 per cent of Sudan’s total population – are acutely food insecure and require urgent humanitarian assistance during June-September 2021. This projection period corresponds to the main lean season for most of the areas analysed, during which the levels of food insecurity are the highest in any given year historically.

According to IPC, seasonal trends and shifts in this period include tribal conflict, low purchasing power and high food prices, and are the main drivers of food insecurity during the first projection. In the lean season, around 2.7 million people will be in Emergency (IPC Phase 4), with nearly 7.1 million in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and over 16.5 million people in Stressed (IPC Phase 2) levels of food insecurity. This marks an increase of 29.6 per cent (from 5.5 million to 7.1 million) of people in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and 46.5 per cent (from 1.8 million to 2.7 million) of people in Emergency (IPC Phase 4), compared to the current analysis period (April - May 2021).

During the projected period, 130 localities are expected to be in Crisis (IPC Phase 3). A total of 51 localities moved between Stressed (IPC Phase 2) and Crisis (IPC Phase 3), while three localities moved between Crisis (IPC Phase 3) and Emergency (IPC Phase 4). The total population in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse is 9.8 million, which is 2 per cent higher than the number of people in high acute food insecurity in the IPC analysis of June - September 2020 (9.6 million).

In addition to seasonality, intercommunal conflict and expected displacements may impact several areas and also cause a deterioration in food security, i.e. Geneina locality in West Darfur.

Localities of Halayeb and Jabiet Al Maadin of Red Sea State will remain in Emergency (IPC Phase 4), as in the current, due to the impact of drought on livelihoods and price shocks. There is a slight deterioration of the population in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse in Jabiet Al Maadin by 5 per cent, while Halayeb slightly improves by 5 per cent, attributed to assistance and availability of pasture.

Localities of Al Buram and Heiban of South Kordofan state will move from Crisis in the current period to Emergency, due to protracted insecurity and poor access of some isolated areas. Households in this period will increasingly rely on markets to purchase staple food at significantly higher than normal prices. Livestock productivity will be at seasonally low levels during the dry season of May to June.

The increase in staple food prices will outpace earnings in cash income from agricultural labour and livestock sales. As the rainy season progresses between June and September, livestock productivity, access to in-kind and cash income from agricultural labour are expected to increase, providing some improvement in household food access. However, staple food prices are expected to increase following the seasonal trend throughout the lean season, further reducing household purchasing power.

The most affected groups are internally displaced people (IDPs), returnees, those stranded in conflict-hit areas, refugees from neighbouring South Sudan, Ethiopia and other countries; poor groups from agro-pastoral and pastoral communities in rural areas of western, eastern and northern Sudan, whose livelihoods are directly affected by the impact of lean season and macroeconomic crises.

The IPC analysis report is available here.

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Emergency Response
Project ECHO

Sudan launches the first telementoring programme to treat patients with COVID-19 at home

An initiative that deploys volunteer medical students in Sudan to treat COVID-19 patients in their homes will get a boost from a new partnership comprising several participants.

The existing Community Medical Response Team (CMRT) programme, set up during the height of COVID-19 in 2020, will use the ECHO telementoring model to connect medical students, graduates, and trainees with highly experienced providers and other experts in virtual learning communities that share the best practices and support for treating patients with COVID-19 in their homes. This will help reduce the virus’s toll on local communities while alleviating the pressure on hospitals and care centres struggling to deal with Sudan’s worsening crisis, which the Ministry of Health has described as “dire.”

The new partnership members include the Project ECHO, the global telementoring initiative based at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center in Albuquerque; the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC); the Sudanese American Medical Association (SAMA) and Sudan NextGen (SNG), which are both parts of the Coalition of Sudanese Organizations against COVID-19 (the coalition); and the Sudanese Federal Ministry of Health (MoH).

Dr Fadul and other Sudanese physicians living overseas—including in Ireland, Canada, Australia, and the United States—began working with the coalition in 2020. The coalition’s efforts during the first wave of the pandemic covered everything from training healthcare providers on the proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to pregnancy care during the pandemic, as well as efforts to provide PPE and other medical supplies.

The second wave saw a major need for community interventions. Dr Fadul and her colleague Reem Ahmed, M.D., from Emory University, co-founded Sudan’s COVID-19 CMRT programme. Over the past four months, they have worked with other Sudanese physicians, including Mohamed Khogali, M.D., in Saudi Arabia, and trained more than 120 medical and healthcare students in over 50 Sudanese neighbourhoods to manage patients with COVID-19 in their homes.

The CMRT training focuses on the principles of home management for mild to moderate cases; home isolation and quarantine methods; and identifying life-threatening symptoms that require immediate medical attention.

“Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical schools in Sudan have been closed, so many students were just sitting at home,” said Dr Fadul. “They wanted to do something, but they didn’t know what to do or how to do it safely. In addition to the impact they’re having on patients, students benefit from pursuing their learning in a hands-on way. When they return to their classrooms, they will be better equipped to take on new challenges.”

The CMRT ECHO will build on these early efforts. During phase one of the roll-out, students will be able to join ECHO learning sessions at six sites throughout Sudan that have internet connectivity. Students unable to go to these sites can join the sessions through their smartphones and other personal digital devices.

Beyond the immediate response to COVID-19, phase two of the project will expand Project ECHO’s Sudan network and add needed programs to help revitalize the country’s healthcare system, including programs in healthcare safety and quality management, research monitoring and evaluation, reproductive health, midwifery, and cardiology.

Project ECHO, founded in 2003, uses videoconferencing technology in a collaborative model of education and care management that empowers learners to implement evidence-based safety and quality practices to improve care and outcomes.

For more, please see the link.

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A water point in Al Jebel neighbourhood, near Abuzar camp in Ag Geneina, West Darfur
A water point in Al Jebel neighbourhood, near Abuzar camp in Ag Geneina, West Darfur, May 2021, OCHA

Challenges of supplying water for thousands of IDPs in Ag Geneina

Children are lining up with their donkeys to fill up water containers at a water point in one of the sections of the Al Jebel neighbourhood, adjacent to the Abuzar camp in Ag Geneina, capital of West Darfur State. They wait patiently for their turn, with their donkeys shooing away flies with their tails.

The children come here almost daily to get water for drinking, cooking and washing for their families. At least it is not far from our houses, other people have to go far or buy water.

Until recently there was piped water in most of the neighbourhood prior to the violence in early April, and the kids did not have to fetch water as it was available in their homes. During the violence the water pumps were badly damaged and people who were operating the pumps and the supply network fled.

Meanwhile, in other parts of Ag Geneina one can see queues of water carts pulled by donkeys lining to fill up and move on to provide water to their eager customers. A barrel and a half of water - roughly 240 litres - costs about 3,000 SDG (about US7.32). Very often the water sold in water carts has slight salinity.

This highlights the daunting the task of providing 151,300 IDPs currently sheltering in Ag Geneina with safe water.

As of 31 May, humanitarian organizations are providing an estimated 19,000 IDPs in Ag Geneina with about 10 litres of safe water per person per day (l/p/d). Scaling up is challenged by the nature of the displacement with people scattered across over 100 gathering sites making  water trucking not feasible and costly.

Moreover, the current situation is quite different from the modus operandi humanitarian organisations in Darfur have been operating with. The current crisis in Ag Geneina is IDPs in an urban setting, where it is not clear how long the people will stay at gathering sites, and where they will eventually move. In a traditional IDP camp setting, humanitarian partners would start working on installing water systems and rely on water trucking only for a limited period. However, this option is not on the table in Ag Geneina.

To tackle the issue, water sector partners are drilling six boreholes in the vicinity of the gathering sites to ensure sustainable access to water supply. Also, the State Water Company is currently upgrading the urban water system by installing 11 submersible pumps, one of them will be dedicated to fou gathering sites. This upgrade is aimed at increasing the water supply to host communities and IDPs.

So far, WASH sector partners have covered 55 out of 88 gathering sites in Ag Geneina with at least 10 l/p/d. The Sphere standard is minimum 15 l/p/d.There are some challenges related to lack of private vendors for water trucking and chlorination for urban water network is a critical gap.

Meanwhile, humanitarian partners advocate for a sustainable solution for the 151,300 displaced people in Ag Geneina before the rains start in June-July.

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Local food market in El Obeid, North Kordofan, March 2021, Leni Kinzli - WFP
Local food market in El Obeid, North Kordofan, March 2021, Leni Kinzli - WFP

Food prices continue to rise, a bad omen for displaced people

Food prices continued to rise across Sudan in April albeit, at a lower rate compared to previous months, the World Food Programme (WFP) reported in its latest Market Monitor update.

In April, the national average cost of a local food basket increased by 1.8 per cent compared to March 2021 and was recorded at SDG152 (about US$0.37). The national average retail price of sorghum was SDG98.5/kg ($0.24/kg), which is a slight increase of 0.3 per cent compared to March. The retail price of wheat flour was SDG272.2/kg ($0.67/kg) - an increase of 3.9 per cent compared to March 2021. The average retail price of a goat was SDG9,648/head ($23.65/head), which is an increase of 12.9 per cent compared with the previous month.

For Mohammed (not his real name), this is bad news as they mean things are getting more difficult. Mohammed was displaced from his ancestral village and arrived in Ag Geneina when the conflict started in Darfur in 2003. When he came to Ag Geneina he was around 30 and now is in his mid-50s, with his seven-member family.

“We used to have a simple but comfortable life before the meshakil [conflict-trouble] started in 2003. We were farming, but also had some sheep, goats and cows. We would slaughter them when we needed and we always had milk,” Mohammed said.

“After we came to Ag Geneina, we had to pay for everything. We still do some farming during the planting season, but we cannot rear livestock anymore. It is not safe to graze them outside of Ag Geneina,” he added.

This means he has to buy meat from the butcher and pay more than 1,500 SDG per kilo ($3.68/kg), which is difficult for him to afford as his monthly salary is 9,000 SDG (about $22) per month. “The food prices are increasing every day. The kilo of meat costs almost the same as in Khartoum. How do you think we can afford it?” he asked.

He spends daily at least 200 SDG (about $0.50) for his fatur (late breakfast/early lunch) and works 14 days per month. His fatur costs about one-third of his monthly salary.

Many other IDPs across Sudan are in a similar situation. A little over half of IDPs across Sudan are food insecure, according to WFP’s Food Security Monitoring Sytems (FSMS) report for the 1st quarter of 2021. The areas with the highest prevalence of food insecurity include refugee and IDP communities in Darfur, Kordofans and Blue Nile State. Economic vulnerability is cited as a major factor as 96 per cent of IDP families are spending more than 65 per cent of their total expenditure on food, the FSMS report said.

Meanwhile, on 18 May, the Central Bureau of Statistics reported that the April inflation rate in Sudan increased from 342 per cent in March to 363 per cent. The economic crisis and inflation are the main drivers of the increase in the number of people in need, according to the 2021 Humanitarian Needs Overview. Humanitarian organisations are advocating for early and flexible funding for the 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan.

For more information, please see the WFP Market Monitor April 2021 report here

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Bab Al-Ginan with her two goats (Ahmed Amin Ahmed, UN Women)
Bab Al-Ginan with her two goats (Ahmed Amin Ahmed, UN Women)

At Heaven’s Doors – the story of Bab Al-Ginan

In an effort to ensure women’s needs and concerns are adequately addressed and that they have access to the resources and opportunities they need, UN Women has been focussing on involving women in decision-making and negotiation.

Bab Al-Ginan Mohamed Ishag Adam is a 42-year-old widow from Menwashi village in Mershing locality, South Darfur State. She lost her husband years ago in one of the many conflicts that the Darfur region has witnessed over the past 18 years.

Over 75 per cent of farmers in Darfur are women and they are the main labour force in the region. While the environmental conditions in the region are conducive for crop cultivation, women often find that profits of the harvest are not satisfactory, either due to lack of market trends knowledge or crop rotation scheme. Furthermore, not all women can access land to cultivate. When government authorities offer help, it is usually the men who take the financial assistance, while it is the women who are the actual income generators in almost all households.

To tackle this issue, the joint UN Women and United Nations – African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) State Liaison Functions (SLF) projects were developed to help women like Bab Al-Ginan. She and 64 other women in Darfur participated in a two-day workshop to enhance women’s economic empowerment and participation in livelihood initiatives. The workshop aimed to teach women how to increase their incomes through animal production projects (distribution of goats) and advanced farming methods. The workshop introduced women to the basic concepts of cooperatives, how to establish marketing networks as well as saving groups.

The women also learned how to manage microfinance projects among women groups. They discussed the types of income-generating activities that suit women’s economic status and how to open credit accounts in the saving bank. On the second day of the workshop, the women were divided into three groups. One group received four sacks of groundnuts for cooking oil processing and four plastic cooking oil containers; the second group received hair cutting tools for both young girls and boys, and the third group received two goats each. Bab Al-Ginan was in the third group.

To Bab Al-Ginan the two goats made a big difference, allowing her to earn an income for her family. After she received the goats, she started growing crops and selling them in the market. Her success made her a respected member of Menwashi’s cooperative network.

Bab Al-Ginan did not stop there. She knew that she needed to support her community and adopted six orphaned children, two girls and four boys. One of these orphans was very young when she took him in, and she was able to use the milk from the goats to feed him, keeping him alive and well-nourished.

She also encourages and helps her neighbours to help those in need. One of her friends now looks after elderly people, people with special needs and victims of conflict. Bab Al-Ginan became a symbol of hope, determination, and success in her community and for women in the region. Her name, Bab Al-Ginan, means the Gates of Heaven in English, a fitting name for an amazing woman.

Photo and written by: Ahmed Amin Ahmed (UN Women Communication Officer)

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Sudan

Situation Report
Feature
Health personnel talking to citizens about the coronavirus vaccine (UNICEF)
Health personnel talking to citizens about the coronavirus vaccine (UNICEF)

Innovating ways to rally communities for the COVID-19 vaccination in Khartoum

Hellatkoko health facility located in Sharg-el-Nil locality is one of the COVID-19 vaccination centres in Khartoum State. In spite of it its strategic location, surrounded by busy markets, automobile repair centres, animal markets and heavily populated areas, the health facility continued to register low numbers of people vaccinated against coronavirus in the locality. The same was the case with other vaccination centres in the state.

Concerned about the trend, the health promotion team at Sharg-el-Nil locality adopted a new strategy targeting people near vaccination centres like Hellatkoko health facility for increased vaccine uptake. This includes the use of mobile vans that go out daily to share information about the vaccine while urging those eligible to go to Hellatkoko health facility to get vaccinated. This is just one of the strategies that the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) and the UN Children’s Agency (UNICEF) have put in place to increase vaccine uptake around vaccination centres and it has yielded major results. According to the FMoH, vaccine coverage for Sharg-el-Nil has increased from 5.1 per cent to 47.1 per cent since the new strategies were initiated.

The mobile van goes out to the communities at least four times a day. After each mobilisation session, more people are seen coming to the facility for the vaccine. At every stop, especially in congested areas like markets, health promoters share messages specific to the COVID-19 vaccine, its availability, safety, efficacy, eligible persons and the vaccination centres around the locality where it could be administered. Health promoters also respond to questions, address rumours and misconceptions that people may have, while reminding those eligible to go to Hellatkoko health facility to get vaccinated.

“I am suffering from diabetes. Should I also take the vaccine?” a man asked. Fortunately, the health promoters are available to answer his question and encourage him to go to the facility to get vaccinated as he is among the persons being targeted. Persons above 45 years of age with illnesses are among the target population for the COVID-19 vaccine in Sudan. In another case, an elderly man working in a nearby market heard the announcements from the mobile van and realising that he was eligible he was vaccinated.

After the vaccination the people are requested to stay behind for 15 to 30 minutes for observation. As more and more people are reached with the messages, operating hours at the health facility were adjusted to meet the increased demand.

UNICEF and partners continue to support the Government of Sudan to reach everyone with the COVID-19 vaccine by adopting innovating new and unusual techniques. Over 215,000 people in Sudan have received their first dose of the coronavirus vaccine as of 18 May, according to the FMoH. No one is safe untill all of us are vaccinated.

UNICEF story, link to the original

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Media

Climate change leaves Ethiopian refugees vulnerable (Mary Theru, producer / Joshua Werema, camperaperson, editor / Andre Therik, drone operator ) UNHCR

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Sudan

Situation Report
Analysis
IDPs in Ag Geneina, January 2021 UNHCR
IDPs in Ag Geneina, January 2021 UNHCR

Half of IDPs and refugees are food insecure - WFP

A little over half of IDPs and 45 per cent of refugee families across Sudan are food insecure, according to the Food Security Monitoring Sytems (FSMS) report for the 1st quarter of 2021 issued by the World Food Programme (WFP). Despite the season’s above-average harvest (CFSAM), the food security situation has not improved compared to last year (which had a poor harvest), the FSMS report said. The areas with the highest prevalence of food insecurity include refugee and internally displaced persons (IDP) communities in the Darfurs, Kordofans and Blue Nile State.

Economic vulnerability is cited as a major factor as 96 per cent of IDP households and 91 per cent of refugee households are spending more than 65 per cent of their total expenditure on food, FSMS report said.

While the prevalence of poor food consumption was on the lower side, more than one third of households relied on food-based and livelihood-based negative coping strategies, focusing on immediate food needs and depleting their assets. Most common livelihood coping strategies include spending savings and cutting down on expenses for other basic needs such as education and health.

Also, high market reliance for food supplies was observed. The market reliance for food commodities often reached higher than 90 per cent, with the other significant source being food assistance. With the deterioration of macroeconomic situation characterised by high inflation and food prices, the purchasing power of the households has significantly diminished.

Other contributing factors include protracted political instability and the COVID-19 pandemic, which has negatively impacted livelihoods. Households headed by women were more likely to be food insecure than a household headed by men by at least 12 per cent, mostly due to limited access to the labour market. With the ongoing economic crisis and upcoming of the lean season in May, the food security situation is expected to worsen in the coming months.

For more information, please see the FSMS report here

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